Author Archives: KPomeroy

Putin-Trump Call: First Move Toward Friendship? – Alexander Mercouris

The Putin-Trump call: first move towards friendship?
By Alexander Mercouris

The Duran
January 29, 2017

Donald Trump (--The Duran)

Donald Trump (–The Duran)

The single most important fact known for certain about US President Trump’s and Russian President Putin’s first telephone conversation, with took place yesterday Saturday 28th January 2017, is that it lasted for a whole hour.

That is an unusually long time for two busy leaders such Trump and Putin to spend talking to each other. It shows that they not only took the call seriously but that they used it to discuss the full range of US-Russia relations, and – perhaps most important of all – to become acquainted with each other.

The last is important because both Trump and Putin are known to be individuals to whom trust and personal contact matter highly.

The importance of trust to both Trump and Putin was discussed in an interesting article by the British journalist Piers Morgan, who is a personal friend of Trump’s, who however has also obtained some unusual (for a British journalist) insight into Putin’s personality as a result of information given him to him about Putin by former US President Bill Clinton:

“Never break your word to him (Donald Trump -AM). Trump’s a very loyal guy, as I can personally attest. I’d bet very good money that if you keep your word to him, he will keep his to you. Remember, you don’t have to like him to do good business with him. Bill Clinton once told me that when he met with Vladimir Putin, they would eventually throw everyone else out of the room and go hard at each other until they reached points of agreement. Pertinently, Clinton said Putin never reneged on any of those personal agreements. His handshake was his bond. Trump is from that same old school of business dealings. And don’t gloat if you do get what you want tomorrow. Again, Clinton told me that the key aspect to his dealings with Putin was not to claim ‘victory’ or make him lose face back home in Russia. I would strongly recommend you adopt a similar philosophy with President Trump.”

Piers Morgan is absolutely right in saying that Putin places an exceptionally high value on honest dealing and trust. Anyone who has followed Putin’s career closely is aware of the exceptional importance of trust to him. A key reason why Putin’s personal relationship with former US President Obama collapsed so completely was because – as a result of Obama’s record of broken promises – Putin decided he could no longer trust him.

The fact that someone like Piers Morgan who knows Trump well says that for Trump trust and honest dealing are equally important, is a good sign for Trump’s and Putin’s future relationship.

As for the contents of the first ever conversation between Trump and Putin, the Kremlin has provided an unusually detailed summary:

“Vladimir Putin congratulated Donald Trump on taking office and wished him every success in his work.

“During the conversation, both sides expressed their readiness to make active joint efforts to stabilise and develop Russia-US cooperation on a constructive, equitable and mutually beneficial basis.

“Mr Putin and Mr Trump had a detailed discussion of pressing international issues, including the fight against terrorism, the situation in the Middle East, the Arab-Israeli conflict, strategic stability and non-proliferation, the situation with Iran’s nuclear programme, and the Korean Peninsula issue. The discussion also touched upon the main aspects of the Ukrainian crisis. The sides agreed to build up partner cooperation in these and other areas.

“The two leaders emphasised that joining efforts in fighting the main threat – international terrorism – is a top priority. The presidents spoke out for establishing real coordination of actions between Russia and the USA aimed at defeating ISIS and other terrorists groups in Syria.

“The sides stressed the importance of rebuilding mutually beneficial trade and economic ties between the two counties’ business communities, which could give an additional impetus to progressive and sustainable development of bilateral relations.

“Mr Putin and Mr Trump agreed to issue instructions to work out the possible date and venue for their meeting.

“Donald Trump asked to convey his wishes of happiness and prosperity to the Russian people, saying that the American people have warm feelings towards Russia and its citizens.

“Vladimir Putin, in turn, emphasised that the feeling is mutual, adding that for over two centuries Russia has supported the United States, was its ally during the two world wars, and now sees the United States as a major partner in fighting international terrorism.

“The two leaders agreed to maintain regular personal contacts.

“The conversation took place in a positive and constructive atmosphere.”

The single most important words in this summary are those in the last few paragraphs.

Trump – most unusually for a US President – went out of his way to wish “happiness and prosperity to the Russian people” and to assure Putin of “the American people have warm feelings towards Russia and its citizens”.

That is exactly the right way to get on the right side of Putin, who has had to endure decades of criticism, abuse and lectures, not just of himself but also of Russia, from US and Western leaders. Such warm words from a US President are not something Putin has been hearing recently, and he was clearly moved by them, as the warm way he reciprocated shows:

“Vladimir Putin, in turn, emphasised that the feeling is mutual, adding that for over two centuries Russia has supported the United States, was its ally during the two world wars, and now sees the United States as a major partner in fighting international terrorism.”

The reference to the “two centuries Russia has supported the United States” refers to Russia’s support to the American colonists during the American War of Independence, and to the US during the civil war.

Note that Putin also referred to Russia being the US’s ally during the two world wars, as opposed to saying that it was the US which had been Russia’s ally.

In other words, in response to Trump’s warm words about Russia and its people, Putin went out of his way to assure Trump that Russia wants to be the US’s friend, and its ally in the war against ISIS and Jihadi terrorism, as it has been its ally in the world wars in the past.

The Kremlin summary ends with words once common in official summaries of diplomatic exchanges but which are rarely used today

“The conversation took place in a positive and constructive atmosphere.”

That this was actually so is shown by the positive comments from US and Russian officials in the hours following the call. As anyone who has worked in a government bureaucracy knows, officials quickly catch the mood of their chiefs, which percolate down the command chain at extraordinary speed. The fact that officials in both the US and Russia were talking positively about the call in the hours immediately following it is the clearest possible sign that the conversation between the two Presidents went well.

The Kremlin’s summary of the call shows the range of subjects discussed: the Middle East, the Arab-Israeli conflict, the Iran nuclear deal, arms control, the crisis in the Korean Peninsula, and of course Ukraine.

Again Putin will have been gratified that a US President is finally talking to him in this way, discussing the full range of international questions with the President of Russia in a way that finally acknowledges Russia’s position as a Great Power. After the bullying and condescension of the George W. Bush and Barack Obama eras, it will have come as both a relief and a pleasure.

The focus of the conversation was however clearly the putative alliance the US and Russia are forming to fight ISIS and Jihadi terrorism together. Putin has been calling for this since his speech to the UN General Assembly in September 2015. As recently as September 2016 the Kerry-Lavrov agreement appeared to have agreed this, only for the alliance to be sabotaged by the Pentagon and the hardliners in the Obama administration. Now that the sabotage of these people is in the past, it appears that this alliance is actually finally happening.

On the subject of the sanctions the Kremlin’s summary of the Trump-Putin conversation has nothing to say, but it does contain an extended passage about a joint desire to develop economic and commercial relations which does indirectly touch on the question of the sanctions

“The sides stressed the importance of rebuilding mutually beneficial trade and economic ties between the two countries’ business communities, which could give an additional impetus to progressive and sustainable development of bilateral relations.”

Since he became US President Donald Trump’s closeness to the US oil industry has become increasingly clear, and Trump has of course picked Rex Tillerson – Exxon’s former CEO – as his choice for Secretary of State.

The US oil industry has an understandable interest in working with Russia – the world’s biggest energy producer – and that is probably where the initial contacts between “the two countries’ business communities” mentioned in the Kremlin summary will start.

The key point – which both Trump and Putin of course know – is that this cannot happen without the sanctions being lifted. The fact that Trump and Putin talked about establishing “mutually beneficial trade and economic ties between the two countries’ business communities” therefore means that Trump is fully resolved to lift the sanctions as soon as he feels he can, even if for political reasons he cannot for the moment say so.

On the subject of the US-Russian trade relationship, Trump and Putin touched on another important point. This is that – as many commentators on international affairs acknowledge – the almost complete lack of economic contacts between the US and Russia has up to now has been a major cause in the repeated failure of their political relationship.

Both men clearly understand this, and realise that it is the development of strong commercial and trade relations between the US and Russia which is needed in order to underpin their political relationship so as to make it both successful and permanent. The wording of the Kremlin’s summary of their conversation (“the importance of rebuilding mutually beneficial trade and economic ties….which could give an additional impetus to progressive and sustainable development of bilateral relations”) shows this.

In summary, the conversation between Trump and Putin went well, as well indeed as could be expected. As the Piers Morgan article shows, the two men have a great deal in common even if their personalities are in many ways very different.

The direction of the conversation also shows something else. This is that Donald Trump has an understanding of human psychology, and possesses diplomatic skills, which few up to now have credited him. He seems to have conducted his conversation with Putin with great skill. For the first time since he became Russia’s leader Putin appears to have a US President who appears to have diplomatic skills to match his own.


Orlando Health: Data on Shooting Victims June 16, 2016

In response to Paul Craig Roberts’ observation that little factual evidence of the Orlando mass shooting has been documented, the following image posted on Twitter June 16, 2016 may help to verify the shooting actually did occur.

It remains unknown, however, why the number killed as a result of the incident has not been updated in media reports.


Zakharchenko’s Direct Line Conference with Residents of Karkhov – Full Text – April 21, 2016

Quemado Institute
Source: DAN
Automatic translation (unedited)
April 21, 2016

Introduction by Quemado Institute

slavapr21uTime constraints and the length of DPR President Zakharchenko’s Direct Line Conference with residents of Kharkov did not allow for a proper translation of this important and illuminating event. What follows is an automatic translation without any editing, so the text is very approximate. We may update periodically with minor improvements to the transcript.

Zakharchenko speaks frankly and openly on participants’ questions about the Donbass war, Igor Strelkov (called “Gunmen” in the autotranslation), the assassinations of NAF commanders, the Kiev leadership, and the role of the United States in instigating the conflict.

Again, in our opinion, President of the Donetsk People’s Republic Alexander Zakharchenko proves himself a leader of caliber comparable to that of Russian President Vladimir Putin.

[Editor’s note: We have accumulating evidence that CIA employees directly monitor and censor websites that publish Zakharchenko’s speeches. Hello CIA analysts! We are happy you are interested in the truth, and hope you enjoy the following article! If Donald Trump gets elected, we suspect you’ll be out of job! We’re sure you’ll find a better one! No hard feelings!]

Zakharchenko online.

slavapr21tZakharchenko: Dear Kharkov! Thank you for what you are not afraid to ask a question and that matters were essentially and important both for you and for us. Of course, not all the questions I had to answer – there are several thousand. But as the full version of our communication with you will continue to stay on this page, I will try to answer more questions later on the other. And I promise that in the near future will hold another online conference with other regions.


Hi, I live in Kharkov, 29 years! And for the last 3 years the level of my life and my family has plummeted, it became critical to earn money for living! He took part in the preservation of order in Kharkov in the spring of 2014, Kharkov has spoken in the spring of 2014 to sign for the preservation of Lenin! After all, he knew that such a change would lead to a halt of production and wage delays and higher prices! But, apparently, the authorities Kiev to crush the resistance! Question: In vain were the efforts of million of Kharkiv ???

Z: No, dear, not in vain! The fact that Kharkiv came to protest and fought as best they could – is it possible to preserve the honor of Kharkov! And the memory of this must support you today. With regard to the deterioration of living standards, then nothing else and will not be until the oligarchs in power, and even under external management. Where’s your president account? In the West? So why be surprised that it is a manual complies with all of the US team and the IMF? We are here rejected such authority and build – People – Republic, in which the main objective is precisely the welfare and well-being of citizens. And this despite the war and the economic blockade from Kiev.

And you try to ask all say that the economic condition has deteriorated Donbass. Also, all say that the economic situation of Ukraine worsened. What is the difference? We have a war, destruction and the economic blockade. And in Ukraine? Why do they have the economy “falls” and people get poorer? We are here all forces and put every penny on it to keep rates on pre-war level. We carry out special market measures to bring down the prices of basic foodstuffs. And in Ukraine? Draw conclusions and make decisions about their future and the future of your children.


We Raisin in complete chaos. Demolish monuments, street names change, the junta robbing us as sticky. Dear Alexander, whether you want to attach the Kharkiv region to the NPT? And if you plan to, when. And please, if you can, let’s not delay. I artillery battalion reactive than I can – help.

Z: I have already said that attach Kharkiv region, like everyone else, to him we will not. It should have a choice of Kharkiv themselves. But if things are so bad you do, you have to look for ways of resistance. Do not give up!


Good day and thank you and all those who heroically defended their right to a normal life. As I understand it, one of the main issues – not only fighting, but also debugging issues vital Donetsk and Lugansk regions apart from the central government. What do you think, what level of self-sufficiency is already available in DNI, LC? In Kharkov – where to get new control frames if people seriously disappointed in today’s “patriots” and those who are behind-Kernes Dobkin?

Zakharchenko online (7) Prior to full self-sufficiency us far, for obvious reasons. However, here it is not about Kiev. Kiev only hurts. Today, we are largely dependent on the assistance of the Russian Federation. This also applies to humanitarian aid, and issues of economic cooperation, cultural cooperation. Many of the materials and products never produced in the Donbass, so help RF invaluable. However, increasing self-sufficiency. We are increasing production capacity, expanding the range of goods produced in the territory of the DNI. If a year ago, under the concept of deficit fell almost everything today, this list has become quite small.

With regard to Kharkiv and lack of personnel. Here you can learn from us. After the outbreak of war escaped from Donbass thousand people, and they were mostly government officials, businessmen and managers. We drew pictures of the people and the policy paid off. Yes, not all mastered, much needed time for training. But over time, the situation began to stabilize. So I’m sure the residents of Kharkiv region will find the talent pool of those who are not indifferent to the fate of their homeland. Well and share staff can, of course – not strangers after all.

I want to be the leader of the DNI. How to do it?

Very simple. It is necessary to obtain citizenship of the DNI and the election to earn the trust of residents, so they voted for you. Here we have nothing new to invent)


Alexander, you realize that the people of Ukraine for you and your collaborators – collaborators and that you will answer for the suffering of millions of people?

slavapr21sZ: I can not agree with you. First, the terminology. “Collaborators” – a person who cooperates with the occupying power, right? We have in the Donbass occupiers not – we are on their own land and are fighting for their homes with those who come to us from other territories with weapons in their hands to kill us. So are the occupiers those Ukrainian soldiers who now occupy beyond the control of the DNI of the former Donetsk region, terrorized – murder and thrown into prison – those of our countrymen who have participated in the organization of a referendum May 11, 2014 – the most democratic procedures of those who invented European civilization.

Accordingly, the collaborators, we can assume that those who are on our occupied territories cooperates with the Kiev regime.

Zakharchenko online (14) But these people we do not call collaborators, by the way. Each made his choice, and after we regain control over the occupied territories, they will be able to quietly leave or stay. Although it may be at times limited in their rights (for example, will not work in the civil service, etc.).


Hello, Alexander. Please tell us, in fact the case in the DNI, in all spheres of life. Information in the media do not, a lie. And on the Internet – an incomplete picture. Thank you.

Z: This I can talk all day, and the time of our on-line conference is limited. So I can not yet offer nothing better than the Internet. By the way, the Internet can find a lot of scenes shot on our lives as the Donetsk channels “1st National”, “Union”, “Hold”, “TV New Russia” and Russian. Here and about war, and about the world. And on agriculture, and on education and medicine, and industrial enterprises, and about the environment. And, most importantly, the history of the people – our heroic people.


Former antimaydanovets: Do you not understand that mentality counted Kharkiv is fundamentally different from the mentality rustic donbasstsev. And after two years ATU – you have lost the support remnants of the city, even among former antimaydanovtsev? As the saying goes, charity begins to the body, and none of us wants to lose a house, apartment, freedom, health and life. I am sure one hundred percent that you have to put Kharkov cross. Mass support in Kharkiv you will not wait for sure.

Z: Firstly, I’m sure you’re wrong. Maybe because you most ashamed of what you have betrayed your ideals, you are trying to present the case so that all the others also came. This is not true.

Secondly, it means that we have to put on the cross Kharkov? The main thing is to Kharkiv and Kharkiv do not put on a cross, as did, apparently, you, “the former antimaydanovets”.


Why among warlords DNI killed primarily ideological supporters Novorosii, and whether there are any results of the investigation of their deaths?

Zakharchenko online (2) We have in the Donetsk People’s Republic of warlords if perish on the battlefield. They were all patriots of Donbass. A investigation of their deaths, we are engaged in – Ukrainian track down the names of those commanders who gave the criminal orders to open fire, and the soldiers who executed this criminal order. All these war crimes would end sooner or later by the court for war criminals – accomplices of the illegal regime in Kiev.


Question from Andrew Melnikov, an employee of the People’s Council of the NPT system. Asked in the studio.

Kharkiv servicemen, ex-servicemen and their families interested in the question about business activity, a job and settle matters with personal documents. They have problems due to the fact that they do not have a local residence. It possible to create a representative body in the power of the DNI or territorial fraternities to address such issues here?

Z: Regarding entrepreneurial activities by military personnel. The document, which regenerates all these difficulties – a military ID. Here, any Kharkiv citizen can get a job and to do business. Since we started issuing passports, it does not matter to us, Kharkivshchina or not. Passport, you are required to receive and, according to this document, you will receive all the full civil rights. With regard to national groups I have two hands “for”! Not territorial fraternity as well representative of the Kharkiv region. I believe that not only Kharkiv, but also Odessa citizens are fighting with us. We need to create fraternity and Odessa and Dnepropetrovsk, Zaporozhye and Kiev. We have people from these regions. If need be – always will render any assistance.


Can a resident of the Kharkiv region and other regions of Ukraine to obtain the DNI passport?

Zakharchenko online (6) To do this, move to the NPT, to join the Republic and to apply to the Migration Service at the place of residence. It is understood that a passport of a citizen DNI, this is not the box on the table and a pennant. It is a question of responsibility. With all the attendant rights and responsibilities.


DNR does not actually participated in the presidential elections in Ukraine in 2014. Given that today the international community (as well as the republic itself) do not deny belonging to Ukraine, if you intend to challenge the legality of the election results?

Z: I have repeatedly said that the election Poroshenko was flawed from the perspective of law and democratic procedures. Not only is that not all of the claimed territory of Kiev took part in the elections, so still and held them against the background of an incredible political terror, when candidates were beaten and threatened with death. Against this background, our referendum and elections in 2014 were much more democratic, and the turnout was extremely high, even for the pre-war Ukraine. Is it on this basis to challenge the legality of the election Poroshenko? I think in the near future this will not be necessary, because they do not believe in long life Poroshenko as president. A sue? Let suing the Ukrainian people – it’s his trouble.


Explain all that behind you build a state? Why is “popular”? Where are your famous oligarchs?

slavapr21rZ: We have before our eyes two negative example and a huge amount of positive. Negative examples – it is Ukraine, as it was before the coup d’état and, especially as it became AFTER coup and came to power Bandera and neo-Nazis. Russia stands out among the positive examples.

DSC_2001 We are building a state, whose main task – well-being, both material and spiritual, of the people. That’s why we are called the “People’s Republic”. To achieve results, we need to eliminate the two main evils that corrode and continue to erode the Ukrainian government – oligarchy and its associated corruption. And these vices so ingrained in the very fabric of the state, that to uproot them is difficult. But we’re not going to give up.

And most importantly, the positive task. We are building a state for which the citizen is the alpha and omega in deed and not in words. Here is a simple example. Any savings penny we spend on it to the standard of living of our population increased. We hold tariffs for pre-war level. We have the economic means to bring down the prices of food and basic consumer goods. All the work of the economic block of our government aims to increase the pensions, benefits, scholarships, salaries. This is – a priority. And the results are already there. It is in Ukraine World Bank records increase in the level of poverty, that is a negative trend. We have positive dynamics. Of course, in conditions of war and economic blockade, it is difficult, but we’re working on it.


Do you believe in God?

Z: Yes I believe you. This, in my opinion, the natural state of man – to believe in God. And the rest is a personal question, and I do not think we should dwell on this.


Alexander, what is your attitude to the Kiev authorities? What are its prospects?
Zakharchenko online (5) This mode, which is the result of a coup d’etat and, in particular, so it rests on the violence (political terror) and a lie. How can you relate to such a regime? Does he have a future? Of course have. Question – how. At the very poor and the evil regime, as well as in humans, there is an opportunity to become even worse and angrier. This is also the future. But this is the future, what I do not want the people of Ukraine. I think that the Ukrainian people have paid a heavy price already for having committed a coup and the coming to power of Bandera and neo-Nazis.

There is another variant of the future. It’s more or less if the healthy forces in the current government will begin systematic work to rid the country of neo-Nazis and criminals and will take the conversion of the state – his return to the path of civilized development. Possible such an option? Of course. But this requires a few conditions. And above all – the people’s will expressed clearly and loudly. So it depends on you and on the inhabitants of other regions of Ukraine.


Why it started and why the war continues?

Z; The war began, we did not – usurpers of power in Kiev. ATO. We held a peaceful referendum – the most democratic event, and we responded with tanks and “Grad”.

To continue the war because that Kiev is not capable of a political settlement. Reason: The permanent political crisis. In these circumstances, the possibility of an escalation of the armed conflict in the Donbass – is an opportunity to extend its power. We – are ready for a political settlement on the basis of direct dialogue and the mutual recognition of each other’s rights.



What good is all the Minsk agreements? And in Ukraine, too?

Z: Minsk agreement: firstly a ceasefire, and therefore saving of lives as the militiamen and civilians Donbass. Second, the “Minsk-2” – this is our diplomatic victory, comparable with the victory under Debaltsevo. We are forced to Kiev to sign the political part of the package of measures which will lead to the degeneration of the authorities in Kiev. Third, the Minsk agreement – this is a sample, for example the regions of Ukraine. They are written that you may require from Kiev. And this can be done through political means. If you do, our sacrifices will be justified in two ways.

I will not say that we did it for you. No, we have had to struggle for the sake of themselves, their parents and their children. But one of the natural consequences of our struggle is the potential for you and the residents of other regions to produce their own expense usurpers of power in Kiev.


Svetlana Nastaseva, “Ukrainian national news” (UNN): How do you feel about the fact that Russian President Vladimir Putin during a telephone conversation with President of Ukraine Petro Poroshenko supported the introduction of armed OSCE police mission in the Donbass?

Zakharchenko online (11) Let’s start with the fact that Russian President Vladimir Putin did not say anything about the introduction of armed OSCE police mission in Donbass. Conventional juggling. Putin said that the issue of small arms OSCE observers. We are talking only about strengthening the security of OSCE personnel, and not about changing or expanding their mandate.

Accordingly, I am against the expansion or change of the OSCE mandate in the Donbass, but I have nothing against that, to increase the safety of OSCE personnel. Although, in my opinion, it was easier to contact us, and we have ensured the safety of their employees.

But I know someone who will treat with great enthusiasm to improve the security of OSCE personnel, if it leads to an improvement in their work. They are our front-line people of the territories. They know if they have a “guest” of the OSCE mission – hence, the Ukrainian military did not fire at our territory. As soon as employees leave the OSCE – shelling resumed.

Chapter DNI began to answer questions residents of Kharkiv region in real time.


When the war is over? What decisions need to be taken for this purpose?

Z: For this purpose it is necessary to fulfill Minsk agreements. And this, in turn, need to create the necessary political conditions in Kiev. Probably, under pressure and using Western supervisors, especially in the US. Then we are the people of Kiev are going to look at each other not through the sniper rifle sight, and in the eye through the negotiating table.

There is an easier way. The inhabitants of the Kharkov region, as well as residents of other regions of Ukraine, can surrender their weapons and return home. If you are afraid of repression, then it’s better to run away, for example, in Russia. Let us not forget that in order to ensure that the criminal order has led to the tragedy, it is necessary to have someone executed the order. Ukrainian generals and politicians who give criminal orders, shoot themselves will not.


Can residents freely DNI acquire weapons in the store?

Z: At the moment, the process of registration and withdrawal of weapons from the population of weapons acquired illegally. When it is completed, it is possible that the issue will be put on sale in stores of weapons, and I do not rule out that it will be resolved positively.


Uv. Alexander Zakharchenko, you have a war going on. I am a simple worker, mow from the army – you want to live. But I can not help but ask the question: When future victory over the junta and its complete surrender it possible to impose the death penalty on its commanders? Including over supreme command of Ukraine, in connection with the criminal orders to bomb peaceful cities?

Z: Such questions should be decided by the people through a referendum even possible.


Good day, Alexander. Please tell us, what do you see the prospects of economic relations with the Kharkov enterprises, after the civil war in Ukraine in general and in particular the Donbass.

Z: I hope that before the end of the war still remain in Kharkov company. Judging by the political and economic course of the Kiev authorities, the Ukrainian economy in general and Kharkiv in particular experiencing the last days. Businesses closed, destroyed whole sectors of the economy. However, the Kharkiv region is very promising for cooperation. Even today, when the Donbass in the blockade, our entrepreneurs are finding ways for economic and trade relations with the Kharkov business. After the settlement of the situation, these relationships will deepen.

Donbass – the region of the miners and metallurgists. Kharkov – is a powerful engineering base. Despite decades of destruction of the Kharkov economic and industrial potential in Ukraine, the oligarchs cut of entire plants, the minimum and innovative investment opportunities, Kharkiv is attractive for cooperation the city. Donbass after the war will have to be restored. Enterprises will need to rise from the ruins and the Kharkov engineering will help us in this.


The Internet is often written that the militia of New Russia has repeatedly fought with American soldiers and US Marines were killed by Ilovaiskaya. How do you comment?

slavapr21qZ: The fact that on the side of the Ukrainian army and terbatalonov fought and are fighting the mercenaries from various countries, including the United States, is not a secret to anyone. Comment here is nothing special. Obviously, our conflict has long internationalized, with a very clear line of fracture. On the one hand – the neo-Nazis of all nationalities, and on the other, our part – anti-fascists. Well, let’s not forget that on the side of Ukraine’s present commercial component – PMC mercenaries single.

We are, in fact, do not care who win on the battlefield – from terbatalonov punitive or American (Polish, Czech and so on.) Mercenaries.


Persha bіda scho spіtkala our great Batkіvschinu – tse CCB rozval CPCP. Іnshіna stupnі tragedії nashoї maloї Batkivshchyna – Ukraine (including i have Slobozhanshchina) – tse factuality zahoplennyat s “INTER-zakulіsoyu” usogo Promyslova that s / g їїpotentsіalіv. Tse Bulo zrobleno at poserednitstvі, that for bezposerednoї uchastі kompradorіv-zradnikіvsvogo people – kompartіyno-komsomolskoї nomenclature, that krimіnalіtetu, scho Zgoda steel “olіgarhatom”, that “polіtichnoyu elіtoyu”. Tsya svolota target Taku Yurydychna base, it has allowed for scho chvert stolіttya Get out pozbaviti svoєї zagalnonatsіonalnoї vlasnostі blizko 50 million. Peresіchnih gromadyan, practical vіdstoroniti їh od upravlіnnya svoєyu Powers abo local boards. Heel Chastina population peredchasno vіdpravlena on tsvintarabozmushe napoїhatiget, Ti, scho zalishilisya – obіkradenі, znedolenі, zpiyachenі, demoralіzovanі that dezіntelektualіzovanі. Tragіchnim, ale zakonomіrnim, fіnalom peredostannogo zlodіyskogo regime “godfather Janek” becoming іnspіrovany ‘s over the hill “Reigning coup scho prizvіv to de-facto« zabugornoї okupatsії “bіlshoї Chastain teritorії moєї Kraina. Users healthy gluzdu chekayut, that gotovі priynyati fate in Vizvolennі svoєї rіdnoї Zemlі! Got no great significance, yak bude ymenuvatisya maybutnya Power, yak, vіryu, vіdroditsya on ninіshnіh ruїnah. Rozkazhіt, whether weasel, shanovny Olexander, about your Buchan virіshennya power just Povernennya zagalnonatsіonalno їvlasnostі Nashomu that prevent people from nіkoli vsіgіlkimaybutno їvladi people scho zabrudnili own blood, zradnitstvom, zlodіystvom defamation the chi. Yaku role in stvorennі that upravlіnnі maybutnoyu powers Wee vbachaєte for zalishkі in spravzhnoї ukraїnskoї іntelіgentsії?

Z: The role of the true Ukrainian intelligentsia is to bring back to consciousness of the Ukrainian people, to return it to the high road of civilization. Again, explain to him what is good and what is bad. Again teach openness and capacity for dialogue and understanding. And the main role of this Ukrainian intelligentsia – it is a struggle for the minds of young citizens of Ukraine, which treats cruelly misanthropic Russophobic propaganda.


How can you explain, from a moral point of view, the passive action of Kiev Kharkiv against the Nazi regime and their participation in the production of weapons used against civilians Donbass?

Z: Not sure I have the right to moralize about it. Kharkiv themselves judge. I can only assume that the protest in Kharkov, as we do, began spontaneously, and we confronted the enemy and trained thinking systemically (although make mistakes). Just quickly, we were able to organize themselves, and there were people who took responsibility to get out on the parapet and remove the mask. And political terror, which gave the Kiev regime in Kharkiv, seems reached the goal. At least for a while. I’m sure not all. Either Kharkiv will meet with the forces or the enemy will retreat – to relax or weaken.

As for the weapons, which produces and repairs Kharkov, and which then kills the people we have in the Donbass, here is more complicated. I remember we had a dialogue with our miners. Asked why they, instead of going to battle, go down into the mines and work in Kiev? And they said, children have to be fed. The logic of our response is: do you support the DNI, but the work on the Ukrainian mines; income from your labor go to Kiev for the money Kiev (for example, in Kharkov) produces weapons which then comes to your house and kill your children. The ones that you have to feed.

As a result, we have a miner’s division.


What is the New Russia, and where to find it on the map? What has to Harkov unrecognized formations DNR and LC?

Z: Dear, do not look in the morning Ukrainian card. Because if you believe in the card, which you will sell in Kiev store, you will be poorly oriented in space. Especially if you buy a map of highways. For the map, which is from Kiev, you can go to so much trouble, that only saw in the movies. For example, if “Ukrainian” road will go to the east or southeast. That is, in the Crimea or in the Donbass.

If essentially the Novorossia You can find historical maps. And then already think of themselves. Our days prove – nothing is eternal in this world, and things can change very suddenly and quickly. Look at the map of the former Ukraine, for example. On this card.

A Kharkiv for DNR and LNR – the neighboring region in which they live our relatives, brothers and associates, companions and friends.


Hello Alexander! I am a resident of Makeyevka, in 2014 was forced to enter one of the Kharkov high schools, as later regretted, tell what is your attitude to such people (after all such cases, as I have, not isolated), provided that after the expiration of training they sincerely want to go back and help the Republic?

Z: No offense, but I recall the old Russian proverb: for one broken two unbeaten give. If you yourself have recognized the error of his decision, but still, as I understand, from personal experience, not from books or TV, you can count on a warm welcome from his fellow countrymen in Makeyevka, and in general we have in the Donetsk Republic.


America invaded Ukraine and destroys us. Resists only Donbass. What to do?

Z: There is a formula that describes our possible actions – emphasize action rather than inaction – in relation to a phenomenon which, as it seems, it is useless to resist. For example, a talk about the globalization process. CAN NOT RESIST, BUT NECESSARY. At least in order to stay yourself and not become a necessity is erratic.


Gunmen / Girkin – friend or foe? A simple question, and I would like to hear a direct and simple answer. A dot the «i».

Z: How Vysotsky sang, and not a friend and not an enemy, and – so. This question “simply” can not be answered. Each played a role in the history of our struggle, including the Gunners. The role of an important but controversial.


In the next school year, the child finishes school. We would like to become a student of one of the universities of Donetsk. Is it possible to distance learning option without leaving the temporarily occupied territory (Kramatorsk) or from other regions of Ukraine?

Z: I understand the desire of your child will learn in the People’s Republic of Donetsk, in fact a very strong scientific and research base in our institutions. Nor is it necessary to regularly ride on the Maidan.

Become a student of the Donetsk University can any graduate of Ukraine, you must have a certificate of secondary education. Including the Ukrainian sample, but always original. Be sure to come to the NPT, to submit documents to the selection committee and entrance exams.

We have a level playing field for training at the expense of the budget for the graduates of the NPT, and of graduates who came from Ukraine.

In the universities of the Republic, there are both full-time and part-time and distance learning.


Your opinion – if we have a chance to get rid of “poroshenok”, “Groisman,” “Baptists of the National Security Council,” speakers from the Maidan, and other enemies of our people, bearing in mind that the US roof very solid? Little Ones, playing in the yard, at war with the Russian, unfortunately …

Z: There is always a chance. From us to you it depends on whether we can take advantage of it. American roof, agree, is strong and against us by professionals because of the high level of the ocean. But we were not born yesterday. First and foremost, we have to do – it’s the Ukrainian people to return to consciousness. The process is extremely simple: to bring to the attention of the people the truth. In general, it is true – the most powerful weapon in the information war. And by the way, the most economical.

As long as we all – each in different ways – Maidana resist the regime and the actual US occupation, we still have a chance.

But what you said about the Little Ones in the yard – it’s really scary. This can not be allowed! And it’s taking care of the family. I understand that brainwash children in the Ukraine are already beginning to kindergarten age, but every child from kindergarten comes home in the evening. And every parent should know that have invested in the little head of his child, and tell and show him the truth. That was how it should be. Books, fairy tales, cartoons, films – these are our tools for saving and preserving children’s consciousness. And most importantly, perhaps, it’s bedtime. But it is impossible to ride. If you do not put special effort for the salvation of your children’s mind, the state machine grind them and make them even your enemies.

Let us not forget that the civil war in Ukraine, the efforts of usurping power in Kiev gradually transformed from “horizontal” – it is a conflict in the Donbass – in the “vertical” – it is a conflict between the generations. Maidana government wants to take away your children and grandchildren, to oppose them to you. For this to rewrite history for this forbidden books and movies. The Ukrainian government wants you, your children and grandchildren watched different films and read different books that you lost your children and grandchildren a common language. Here it is necessary to resist the daily and hourly!


Many experts predict DNR and LNR fate of Transnistria. What do you think about this, whether this is going?

Z: Indeed, a comparison of Donbass with Transnistria sounds often. We are talking about a “frozen conflict” as a result of a political settlement. It is theoretically possible option. But Donbass fundamentally different from Transnistria that we have a common border with Russia. This radically changes the situation. We will not turn starve. However, already it happened.


MP from the Party of dill – Sasha, calm down! Spend a normal referendum and fell to please Russia) Be the Ukrainians alone!

Z: MP, cheer up! Make click Kiev remove troops from the territory of Donetsk region – ALL – and then we will hold a referendum peacefully. And we will do as our people say.


If the Russian Federation refuses to help the DNI, your actions?

Z: Firstly, I still believe in Russia and that it will help. And I had no reason to doubt with regard to our Russian.

Secondly, all our efforts are focused on the economy in the production of goods and services, rather than on how to distribute aid from Russia. And we will continue to build our economy. We’re only now understand how we cheated Kiev 25 years, with the help of fraud and corruption schemes by creating the image of a subsidized region. Even now, in times of war and economic blockade, when many mines destroyed, we have surpassed the pre-war production levels. Reason one – we have eliminated corruption and theft.


Good day, Alexander. Easy-whether to switch from the decision of general economic issues to the problems of war, and vice versa? How quickly able to adapt? What is the shape of the head is closer to you: strong economic or warlord?

Z: Switch is sometimes difficult. The main thing is to rebuild the internal rhythm. In military matters, the decision must be taken as quickly as possible – this is often dependent on the lives of your comrades. But in economic matters – on the contrary, we must take the time to think things through, to consider different options. So the switch is difficult, but possible, and I think that has already obtained) As for the “image leader”, then honestly tell you, this is no time to think about. Now we are faced with both a military tasks and chores. And we will solve them as they become available.


Are you prepared in case of an election in the Donbas, prevent Ukrainian Nazi Party, are in favor of the resumption of fighting you? If so, what parties can be allowed?

Z: I have already had occasion to speak about it, even in relation to specific parties. The answer is simple: all the parties that are directly or indirectly supported the punitive operation against Kiev Donbass, will not participate in our elections. It is excluded. And it’s not just a matter of policy, but also a safety issue. How do you imagine the agitators of the party “Freedom” or “Right sector” we have in Donetsk near the airport, where there is no whole-house or in Gorlovka, which is still under fire, or Debalcevo that Ukrainian military just methodically destroyed before how to escape or surrender? Residents of these agitators tear to pieces. No power can stop people in the world who have lost their loved ones, homes, which destroyed lives. No army is not enough to save the agitators, for example, “Right sector” from lynching by the local residents. As for the political side of this question, I once said that there is a chance to try to participate in our elections by the “opposition bloc”. But on one condition. This party, which by their presence in Parliament indirectly legalized punitive operation in the Donbass, should publicly – emphasize publicly! – To repent of complicity in the actions of the Kiev regime and condemn the crimes that were committed Maidan power against his own people.


How are you going to build a foreign economy, if the republic is not recognized by almost any country in the world?

Z: We’re not going – we are building. And trade with other countries, including Ukraine. Here in fact is simple: if we produce food and goods that are in demand in the international markets, the business, including a foreign language, he will find a way to purchase our products and goods. And is, I assure you.

Last year we were even forced to impose a moratorium on the sale of grain abroad, as demand was very high, and we had to first meet their needs. ”


Hello! Tell me, is there any rational reason to hold war Kharkiv in Kharkov for the “Russian world”, in Donetsk? For what? For passports, that no one recognizes or for the sake of pensioners went to the junta for pensions and products through the roadblocks?

Z: You did not put the question. Firstly, I will not wish the war. No Donbass nor Kharkov, and no one else. Because I know what war is, I know what death is at war, I know what it’s like when you die at the hands of friends and comrades. In general, I believe that the real value of the world known only to those who were in the war.

As for the inconveniences and hardships, through which our people – the roadblocks and the like – it is not a goal but the price of victory. Regularly talking to people and getting acquainted with the results of opinion polls, I know that the residents of Donbass mostly consciously relate to and understand the difficulties for which tolerate them.

A goal, that is what you call “for which” the other. Briefly it can be stated as follows: the right to be yourself. We do not want to be using violence and manipulation of consciousness altered by banderovsy standard. We do not want our children to have hammered in the head are not real history of the country’s non-existent. We do not want our children to swear allegiance to the “precepts” Bandera.

And we want to make our parents proud of what they have achieved in their lives. And our children to respect their grandfathers and great grandfathers, and revered as heroes who really gave their lives for us to be at all.


Alexander, please tell me, we all want you to become the President of Ukraine. When you become them, what will you do with Turchinov and Yatsenyuk?

Z: I can not say now who will be the president of Ukraine, when it comes to, will return to the normal system of moral coordinates. But I am sure that any president will be obliged to initiate criminal prosecution Turchinov, Yatsenyuk Nalyvaychenko, Parubiya and many others, so to speak, “figures” that coup, unleashed after the country’s civil war. So – in court!

Is it possible to unite Ukraine as it was before the Maidan? It is clear that the current Kiev government is not able to. Do you have the strength and capabilities to such a union or your goal only New Russia?

Recent history shows that nothing is impossible. Who could have imagined three years ago that we will build the Donetsk People’s Republic. The same can be said about Ukraine. Future multivariate. The main question – what principles can reunite Ukraine. It may sound corny, but to join you first need to disconnect. I think that all the regions must first obtain the best possible autonomy to develop their own rules of life in accordance with their traditions and visions of the future, and then they can all pereuchredit Ukraine.

Maybe on a federal, but rather on the confederal basis. Thus, it will be possible to take into account the specificity of all parts of Ukraine, their diversity and otherness, and thus to develop common rules. Only in this way can avoid a violent unification, whether it is under the banner of Bandera or some other. Relatively speaking, the process should start from the bottom, not the top.


Alexander, there is a possibility in Kharkiv somehow get a new history textbook of the Donetsk People’s Republic?

Z: We originally understood that our main and common struggle – a struggle for the minds of our children. Textbooks on the history of Donbass already exist. We are aware that distribute them in Kharkiv by the retail network unreal, through checkpoints to carry dangerous to life and health, and for the purchase of such books in Ukraine can pay personal freedom. But we will try to do everything possible to ensure that the residents of Kharkiv region and other regions of Ukraine had the opportunity to get acquainted with them, including through the Internet. ”

That DNR may offer the residents of other regions, which benefits would be different from the present-day Ukraine (social standards, media freedom, the absence of dictatorship, human rights, economic and tax advantages, the lack of influence of the oligarchs, for example)? Please reply without slogans and “ukrofashistov”.

Let no slogans. Directly on your list. There are things that are in the stage of formation and discussion – for example, the tax system, so to talk about it sooner. Anyway, we have a tax system is not worse, and we do not charge to pensioners in the war tax.

As for the dictatorship, then we do not have it, although it could be in wartime. We held elections, and, in contrast to Ukraine, while they did not kill the activists, not beaten to death, and the candidates were not engaged in manipulation. And while the turnout was not in the example above, than in Ukraine during the presidential and parliamentary elections.

Human rights are a priority for us. Above all, the main thing right – to life. And this is exactly the right man, which is not observed Ukraine. Including here in the Donbass. Of course, many of the human rights we are limited, but not by us, and Ukraine. And let’s not forget that we are forbidden misanthropic ideology and historical figures, such as Bandera or Nazism.

Social standards? In this question there are two sides. First – this state of cash with social standards. And here we are not very good things. But the reason is not in our unwillingness to address these issues, and that made the Donbas Ukraine. The economic blockade, refusal of social benefits (pensions, benefits, etc.), blocking of the banking system and more. However, here it must be said about the other side – the vector of development. That is, here we are on what tasks we set for ourselves? The main task – the well-being of our residents. And that is why we, unlike Ukraine, utility rates frozen at pre-war levels. That is why we invest every penny earned in that market-based instruments to hold back the prices of basic products. In fact, many foods we are cheaper than in Ukraine, despite the economic blockade and military action.

And, finally, about the oligarchs. De oligarchization economics and politics, along with the fight against corruption are key pillars of our policy. And we in the Republic of complete consensus on this issue.

You can go on and on, but it may be another answer.

General principles of social policy, de oligarchization, the fight against corruption, de banderizatsiya ban ultra-nationalist parties, free elections, sovereignization policy, that is, the rejection of external control and relying on their own strength. All of this could be the principles of policy in most regions of Ukraine.


Alexander, how to deal with the information blockade DNR and LC? How to counteract the lies that accompany punitive operation and, as a consequence, the prosecution of all mortal sins militia Republic and Russia? Ukrainian media brainwashing the population reached its climax.

Z: Fight the information blockade and making fools of population in Kharkov is necessary by all means and at all levels. Chief among them – the family. We must save children from the information of the virus, which spreads from Kiev Bandera authority on American techniques (in a good way, methods – we also do not sin he borrowed them).

Another level, which is not controlled by the illegal authorities of Kiev – the Internet. It is necessary to create a community through which to disseminate truthful information. Given the level of political terror in Kharkov, the community need should be anonymous. The main thing – the level of confidence in these communities and the truth.

In general, it is true – the most efficient and cost effective weapons in the information war. And we must not forget about the books and films, which must be distributed on a “hands.” It’s not just about preserving the Russian language, but also about those ideals that spread Russian art. This is also a weapon in that information war waged with us Kiev illegal government.


Do you plan to economic cooperation in our region? The exchange of experience and personnel after the victory?

Z: Be sure! Our large region that was once called the Donetsk-Krivoy Rog republic, has always been strong cooperation. Scientific and industrial potential of Kharkov, which is now destroyed by the Kiev authorities, multiplied by the potential of Donbass – can bring a breakthrough effect and secure the future for us, our children and grandchildren.

Important in the future – to enter the neutral status of the region, and have economic cooperation with Russia and with the EU. And perhaps it will only be if we are going to decide their own destiny and lead sovereign politics.


Kharkiv remember and will never forget the Nazi marches through the streets of the city. Remember how forced kissing a swastika on his hands and beaten for refusing. Our children are not able to live a “ridge”. Therefore, many were imprisoned. They were tortured, brutally beaten, many were missing. I beg you to help in the exchange of prisoners of Kharkiv! We will never forgive those who brought to our land death, tears, war! We will never forget those who tortured and killed our children!

Z: We also do not forget the crimes committed by the Bandera power in Kharkov, Odessa and other cities of the South-East. Yes, and in other regions of Ukraine, too. And we must not forget. But that’s not it. We must create the conditions to overcome this terrible spiritual crisis of the Ukrainian people.

As for the political prisoners of Kharkiv, we regularly try to include them in the list on the exchange, but the people of Kiev as regularly exclude them from the list or even disrupt the process of exchange. But we will not abandon these efforts.


I live in Kiev, and I want to just say thank you for what you do! You are a brave man, you are to defend their rights, and we have every day is becoming very sad! I understand that the people of Kiev all very angry, we had not let these monsters on the Maidan, but believe that there are many people who are against Europe, against which this power. I am very hurt by the fact that in the Donbas killed so many people, I do not mean “atoshnikov” them to forcibly driven shoot. I want to say: forgive us for our inaction, but … is not forgiven … And yet, thanks to you!

Z: Thank you. To hear such words from Kiev is especially important for us not to lose faith completely in Ukraine and the Ukrainian people.


For what ideals you fight? What is the “Russian world”?

Z: From the beginning of our struggle were slogans that inspired everyone, without distinction of nationality, religion or political views. This freedom, justice, equality and the desire to live according to conscience. “Russian world” – it is intangible, spiritual space in which every individual and every nation can realize themselves and – most importantly – stay himself. “Russian world” does not equate one size fits all. “Russian world” in favor of a colorful variety of anti-dull grayness of Western pseudo-democratic standard.

This, incidentally, applies to Ukraine. The slogan “For a United Ukraine” is a substitution of concepts. You are trying to convince that we are talking about a “unified” Ukraine as an “equal” Ukraine. And this is a lie, and a lie harmful. Ukraine – is different, and this is its potential resource. But politicians in 25 years turned into a resource problem, and now in the cause of war. It seems to me that you have to refute this lie on the same Ukraine and recognizing its diversity, start putting the country again with other regions, recognizing the right


How to relate to the residents of the DNI-controlled territory Kiev, who do not participate in the “TAU” and doing everything possible to avoid involvement in the civil war?

Z: Well relate. We understand that – albeit to varying degrees – but we all have suffered and continue to suffer from anti-people and anti-human policy of the Kiev regime.

If our neighbors manage to avoid involvement in the conflict on the side of the aggressors of Kiev, we will only welcome it.

I have said many times that those who are on the “wrong side” demarcation line, it is better to withdraw from the conflict. You can go to Russia, it is possible to us. The main thing – not the front. We do not want to fight with those who by force or by means of blackmail drove under appeal.

But if not managed to “hang” and got to the front – give up. Peresidit us captive in a quite decent manner, and then, when the conflict is over, safe and sound will return home. ”


Hello! As far as we (on a 5-point scale) in Kyiv cheating issue of DNR and LNR?

Z: On the 5 plus. The only thing that Kiev can not misquote, so it is the very existence of our Republic. But everything else – or an outright lie or veiled.

In this regard, I can advise only one thing: look for primary sources, that is, look on the Internet, our local materials of our lives. This is our TV channels, and our sites. ”


What made you take up arms and confront the current Ukrainian authorities? You are fighting not with them, and with ordinary people, most of whom simply mobilized.

Z: We are at war with those who came to us with arms, to deprive us of the right to decide their own destiny. And who is on the other side of the front line – the ideological or punitive terbatalonov of recruits, we do not know. Usually we learn about who they are, after we take them prisoner.

Therefore, ordinary people, we have said many times: run from mobilization. In Russia, you can run, can the West. Just do not go to the front as there is no one will understand. Well, if you are not lucky and got to the front, then give up. Peresidit war in decent conditions of our captivity, and then go home, safe and sound.


Dear Alexander Vladimirovich, how do you feel about the fact that in 2014 the Russian government has recognized the Ukrainian election as legitimate and thus trampled faith in the fairness of the Russian people. Weight fighters against Nazi scum hopes for support. Only with forks on the tank, no one will throw.

Z: Russia nor in 2014 or this year, did not recognize the legitimacy of the regime in Kiev. Always call and came to power in a coup at the highest level of the regime in Moscow. And Russia’s opinion has not changed!

We also, like Russia, recognize the de facto power in Ukraine, that is, the power that illegally usurped the right to take decisions on behalf of the state.

With a fork on a tank rush, do not, of course, but it might be worth to make the tanks did not go beyond the plant, or at least the city.

Question: Good day, Alexander. Tell me, why the press conference for the residents of Kharkiv region? Indeed, for obvious reasons, you are, unfortunately, not how it can not help us … And ask, and to ask for help is useless, and it is – one of the most interesting questions of Kharkiv.

Answer: Kharkov – Donbas region closest in spirit. And in many respects close to me personally. Here, the public organization “Hold” was formed, which is winter in 2013-2014 almost the only tried to express their indignation at the events in Kiev. And that, along with Stronghold I began my struggle. I’m sure Kharkiv – against fascism, against the lawlessness that reigns today in Ukraine. Today Kharkiv after a period of political terror as it went into the shadows, in the underground, but it sure is not defeated until the end. So I decided to answer the questions of Kharkiv, which reached me from you through my website and social networks, as well as through representatives of Kharkiv friendly association in Donetsk. I am sure that you are still able to stand up to fight and to repeat the feat of your ancestors, once destroyed fascism in his lair. Kharkov need to start to get up from its knees, it should have been done two years ago. Once you realize that without fighting the junta will not reset and start to act decisively, then it will help the people of the DNI. How to deal with the Nazis we know. But you have to do to fight for their future and that of their children.


Observing gravitational waves from core-collapse supernovae in the advanced detector era

Observing gravitational waves from core-collapse supernovae
in the advanced detector era

[This file has been copied from PDF to Word without format conversion. The source of the article is Physical Review D, February 5, 2016. We are in the process of doing rudimentary formatting by hand to make the text more readable. The equations and tables cannot be formatted. — Integrative*Mind editor]

S. E. Gossan,1,2 P. Sutton,4 A. Stuver,5,6 M. Zanolin,3 K. Gill,3 and C. D. Ott2
1 LIGO—California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA
2 TAPIR, MC 350-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA
3 Embry Riddle Aeronautical University, 3700 Willow Creek Road, Prescott, Arizona 86301, USA
4 Cardiff University, Cardiff, CF24 3AA, United Kingdom
5 LIGO Livingston Observatory, Livingston, Louisiana 70754, USA
6 Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, USA
(Received 9 November 2015; published 5 February 2016)

The next galactic core-collapse supernova (CCSN) has already exploded, and its electromagnetic (EM) waves, neutrinos, and gravitational waves (GWs) may arrive at any moment.We present an extensive study on the potential sensitivity of prospective detection scenarios for GWs from CCSNe within 5 Mpc, using realistic noise at the predicted sensitivity of the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo detectors for 2015, 2017, and 2019. We quantify the detectability of GWs from CCSNe within the Milky Way and Large Magellanic Cloud, for which there will be an observed neutrino burst. We also consider extreme GW emission scenarios for more distant CCSNe with an associated EM signature. We find that a three-detector network at design sensitivity will be able to detect neutrino-driven CCSN explosions out to ∼5.5 kpc, while rapidly rotating core collapse will be detectable out to the Large Magellanic Cloud at 50 kpc. Of the phenomenological models for extreme GWemission scenarios considered in this study, such as long-lived bar-mode instabilities and disk fragmentation instabilities, all models considered will be detectable out to M31 at 0.77 Mpc, while the most extreme models will be detectable out to M82 at 3.52 Mpc and beyond.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.93.042002

Core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) are driven by the release of gravitational energy in the core collapse of massive stars in the zero-age-main-sequence mass range 8M⊙ ≲ M ≲ 130M⊙. The available energy reservoir of ∼300 Bethe (B, 1B ¼ 1051 erg) is set by the difference in gravitational binding energy of the precollapse core (R ∼ 1000–2000 km, M ∼ 1.4M⊙) and the collapsed remnant (R ∼ 10–15 km). Much of this energy is initially stored as heat in the protoneutron star and most of it (∼99%) is released in the form of neutrinos, ∼1% goes into the kinetic energy of the explosion, ∼0.01% is emitted across the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum, and an uncertain, though likely smaller, fraction will be emitted in gravitational waves (GWs) [1,2].

Distant CCSNe are discovered on a daily basis by astronomers. Neutrinos from CCSNe have been observed once, from the most recent nearby CCSN, SN 1987A [3,4], which occured in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), roughly 52 kpc from Earth [5]. GWs1 are—at lowest and likely dominant order—emitted by quadrupole massenergy dynamics. In the general theory of relativity, GWs have two polarizations, denoted plus (þ) and cross (×). Passing GWs will lead to displacements of test masses that are directly proportional to the amplitudes of the waves and, unlike EM emission, not their intensity. GWs have not yet been directly detected.

GWs, much like neutrinos, are emitted fromthe innermost region (the core) of the CCSN and thus convey information on the dynamics in the supernova core to the observer. They potentially carry information not only on the general degree of asymmetry in the dynamics of the CCSN, but also more directly on the explosion mechanism [1,10,11], on the structural and compositional evolution of the protoneutron star [12–15], the rotation rate of the collapsed core [16–19], and the nuclear equation of state [17,20,21].

A spherically symmetric CCSN will not emit GWs. However, EM observations suggest that many, if not most, CCSN explosions exhibit asymmetric features (e.g., [22–26]). This is also suggested by results of multidimensional CCSN simulations (e.g., [27–35] and references therein). Spherical symmetry should be robustly broken by stellar rotation, convection in the protoneutron star and in the region behind the CCSN shock, and by the standing accretion shock instability (SASI [36]). The magnitude and time variation of deviations from spherical symmetry, and thus the strength of the emitted GW signal, are uncertain and likely vary from event to event [1,13].

State-of-the-art models, building upon an extensive body of theoretical work on the GW signature of CCSNe, predict GW strains—relative displacements of test masses in a detector on Earth—h of order 10−23–10−20 for a core 1For detailed reviews of GW theory and observation, we refer the reader to Refs. [6–9].

PHYSICAL REVIEW D 93, 042002 (2016)
2470-0010=2016=93(4)=042002(24) 042002-1 © 2016 American Physical Society collapse event at 10 kpc, signal durations of 1 ms − few s, frequencies of ∼1 − few 1000 Hz, and total emitted energies EGW of 1041–1047 erg (corresponding to 10−12−10−7M⊙c2) [1,13,14,17,27,29,37–40].

More extreme phenomenological models, such as long-lasting rotational instabilities of the proto-neutron star and accretion disk fragmentation instabilities, associated with hypernovae and collapsars, suggest much larger strains and more energetic emission, with EGW perhaps up to 1052 erg (∼0.01M⊙c2) [41–44].Attempts to detect GWs from astrophysical sources were spearheaded byWeber in the 1960s [45]. Weber’s detectors and other experiments until the early 2000s relied primarily on narrow-band (≲10 s of Hz) resonant bar or sphere detectors (e.g., [46]). Of these, NAUTILUS [47], AURIGA [48], and Schenberg [49] are still active. The era of broadband GW detectors began with the kilometer-scale first-generation laser interferometer experiments. The two 4-km LIGO observatories [50] are in Hanford, Washington, and Livingston, Louisiana, hereafter referred to as H1 and L1, respectively. A second 2-km detector was located in Hanford, referred to as H2, but was decommissioned at the end of the initial LIGO observing runs. The 3-km Virgo detector [51] is located in Cascina, Italy. Other GWinterferometers are the 300-m detector TAMA300 [52] in Mitaka, Japan, and the 600-m detector GEO600 [53] in Hanover, Germany. The second generation of groundbased laser interferometric GW detectors, roughly 10 times more sensitive than the first generation, are under construction. The two Advanced LIGO detectors [54] began operation in late 2015 at approximately one-third of their final design sensitivity, jointly with GEO-HF [55]. Advanced Virgo [56] will commence operations in 2016, followed by KAGRA [57] later in the decade. LIGO India [58] is under consideration, and may begin operations c. 2022.

Typically, searches for GW transients must scan the entire GW detector data set for signals incident from any direction on the sky (e.g., [59,60] and references therein) unless an external “trigger” is available. The observation of an EM or neutrino counterpart can provide timing and/or sky position information to localize the prospective GW signal (e.g., [61–63] and references therein). The sensitivity of GW searches utilizing external triggers can be more sensitive by up to a factor of ∼2, as constraints on time and sky position help reduce the background noise present in interferometer data (e.g., [61,64]). In both cases, networks of two or more detectors are typically required to exclude instrumental and local environmental noise transients that could be misindentified as GW signals. This is particularly important in the case where there is no reliable model for the GW signal, such as for CCSNe.

Arnaud et al. [65] were the first to make quantitative estimates on the detection of GWs from CCSNe. They studied the detectability of GW signals from axisymmetric rotating core collapse [66], by means of three different filtering techniques. The authors showed that, in the context of stationary, Gaussian noise with zero-mean, the signals should be detectable throughout the galaxy with initial Virgo [51]. Ando et al. [67], using single-detector data taken with the TAMA300 interferometer, were the first to carry out an untriggered all-sky blind search specifically for GWs from rotating core collapse. These authors employed a modelindependent approach which searches for time-frequency regions with excess power compared to the noise background (called an “excess power method” (e.g., [68–71]). They employed rotating core-collapse waveforms from Dimmelmeier et al. [72] to place upper limits on detectability and rate of core collapse events in the Milky Way. Unfortunately, these upper limits were not astrophysically interesting due to the high false alarm rate of their search, caused by their single-detector analysis and the limited sensitivity of their instrument.

Hayama et al. [73] studied the detectability of GWs from multidimensional CCSN simulations from [38,74–76]. Using the coherent network analysis network pipeline RIDGE [77], signals in simulated Gaussian noise for a four-detector network containing the two Advanced LIGO detectors, AdvancedVirgo, and KAGRA are considered. The authors find that GWs from the neutrino-driven explosions considered are detectable out to ∼ð2–6Þ kpc, while GWs from rapidly rotating core-collapse and nonaxisymmetric instabilities are detectable out to between ∼ð11–200Þ kpc.

In this article, we describe a method for the detection of GWs from CCSNe in nonstationary, non-Gaussian data recolored to the predicted sensitivity of the secondgeneration interferometers. Since GW emission from CCSNe may be very weak (but can vary by orders of magnitudes in strain, frequency content, and duration), we follow a triggered approach and employ X-Pipeline [78], a coherent analysis pipeline designed specifically to detect generic GW transients associated with astrophysical events such as gamma-ray bursts and supernovae using data from networks of interferometers. We consider (1) CCSNe within ∼50 kpc with sky position and timing localization information provided by neutrinos (e.g., [79–81]). At close source distances, we hope to detect GWs from CCSNe in current scenarios predicted by state-of-the-art multidimensional numerical simulations. (2) Distant CCSNe with sky position and timing localization information provided by EM observations. At distances greater than ∼ð50–100Þ kpc, we do not expect to detect GWs from the conservative emission scenarios predicted by multidimensional CCSN simulations. Instead, we consider more extreme, phenomenological emission models. These may be unlikely to occur, but have not yet been constrained

S. E. GOSSAN et al. PHYSICAL REVIEW D 93, 042002 (2016)

We consider GW emission from “garden-variety” CCSNe (e.g. convection, SASI, and rotating core collapse and bounce) with waveform predictions from multidimensional CCSN simulations, in addition to extreme postcollapseGW emission mechanisms. In addition, we consider for both scenarios sine-Gaussian GW bursts as an ad hoc model for GW signals of central frequency f0 and quality factor Q, which are frequently used to assess the sensitivity of searches for generic GW bursts of unknown morphological
shape [59,60].

This paper is organized as follows. In Sec. II, we discuss the challenges associated with observing GWs from CCSNe. We outline our strategies to overcome these challenges and introduce the observational scenarios considered in this study in Sec. III. We review the waveforms+ from multidimensional hydrodynamic simulations and phenomenological waveform models used in this study in Sec. IV. In Sec. V, we give details of our analysis approach and lay out how we establish upper limits for detectability. We present the results of our analysis and provide quantitative estimates for the distances out to which GWs may be observed for each of the considered waveform models and detector sensitivity in Sec. VI. We summarize and conclude in Sec. VII.

GW astronomers looking for short-duration GW transients emitted from CCSNe face multiple challenges.

A. The rate of observable events is low If GW emission in standard, “garden-variety” CCSNe occurs at the strains and frequencies predicted by current models, simple estimates of signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) suggest that even second-generation detectors may be limited to detecting core-collapse events in the Milky Way and the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds [1,12,14,29]. The expected rate of CCSNe in the Milky Way is ∼ð0.6 − 10.5Þ × 10−2 CCSNe yr−1, (e.g., [82–87]), and it is ∼ð1.9 − 4.0Þ × 10−3 CCSNe yr−1 in the combined Magellanic Clouds [82,84,88]. Similar SNR estimates for extreme GWemission models for CCSNe suggest that they may be observable throughout the Local Group and beyond (D ≲ 20 Mpc). Within the Local Group (D ≲ 3 Mpc), the CCSN rate is ∼9 × 10−2 CCSNe yr−1, with major contributions from Andromeda (M31), Triangulum (M33), and the dwarf irregular galaxy IC 10, IC 1613, and NGC 6822 [82,84,89,90]. Outside of the Local Group, the CCSN rate increases to ∼0.15 CCSNe yr−1 within D ∼ 5 Mpc, including IC342, theM81 group,M83, andNGC253 as significant contributors to theCCSNrate [91–96].WithinD ¼ 10 Mpc, the CCSN rate is ∼0.47 CCSNe yr−1, while it increases to ∼2.1 CCSNe yr−1 within D ¼ 20 Mpc [91,94–96].

B. The duty cycle of the detectors is not 100% The fraction of time interferometers are operating and taking science-quality data is limited by several factorsincluding commissioning work (to improve sensitivity and stability) and interference due to excessive environmental noise. For example, consider LIGO’s fifth science run (S5), the data from which we use for the studies in this paper. S5 lasted almost two years between November 15, 2005 and November 2, 2007, and the H1, H2, and L1 detectors had duty cycles of 75%, 76%, and 65%, respectively. The duty cycle for double coincidence (two or more detectors taking data simultaneously) was 60%, and the triple coincidence duty cycle was 54% [97,98]. The risk of completely missing a CCSN GW signal is mitigated by having a larger network of detectors. In addition, resonant bar and sphere detectors do provide limited backup [47–49].

C. The noise background in the GW data is non-Gaussian and nonstationary Noise in interferometers arises from a combination of instrumental, environmental, and anthropomorphic noise sources that are extremely difficult to characterize precisely [50,99–101]. Instrumental “glitches” can lead to large excursions over the time-averaged noise and may mimic the expected time-frequency content of an astrophysical signal [50,102]. Mitigation strategies against such noise artifacts include
(1) Coincident observation with multiple, geographically separated detectors (2) Data quality monitoring and the recording of instrumental and environmental vetos derived from auxiliary data channels such as seismometers, magnetonometers, etc. (3) Glitch-detection strategies based on Bayesian inference (e.g., [103,104]) or machine learning (e.g., [104,105]) (4) Using external triggers from EM or neutrino observations to inform the temporal “on-source window” in which we expect to find GW signals and consequently reduce the time period searched.

D. The gravitational wave signal to be expected from a core-collapse event is uncertain The time-frequency characteristics of the GW signal from a core-collapse event is strongly dependent on the dominant emission process and the complex structure, angular momentum distribution, and thermodynamics of the progenitor star. In the presence of stochastic emission processes (e.g., fluid instabilities such as convection and SASI), it is impossible to robustly predict the GW signal. As a result, the optimal method for signal extraction, matched (Wiener) filtering [106], cannot be used, as a robust, theoretical prediction of the amplitude and phase of …


… the GW signal is required. Matched filtering is typically used in searches for GWs from compact binary coalescence, for which robust signal models exist. The “excess-power” approach [69–71] is an alternative to matched filtering for signals of uncertain morphology.

Searching for statistically significant excesses of power in detector data in the time-frequency plane, prior information on the sky position, time of arrival, and polarization of the targeted GW source can be exploited to reduce the noise background and, consequently, the detection false alarm rate. It can be shown that, in the absence of any knowledge of the signal other than its duration and frequency bandwidth, the excess-power method is Neyman-Pearson optimal in the context of Gaussian noise [69].

Core-collapse events are the canonical example of multimessenger astrophysical sources and, as such, are particularly suited to externally triggered GW searches. In this section, we describe four potential observational scenarios for CCSNe in the local Universe.

A. Location of SNe
We consider CCSNe in four galaxies that contribute significantly to the CCSN rate in the Local Group and Virgo cluster. The Milky Way, a barred spiral galaxy, is the galaxy that houses our solar system. For the purposes of this study, we consider a CCSN in the direction of the Galactic center, at right ascension (RA) 17h47m21:5s and declination (Dec) −5°3209.600 [107], located ∼9 kpc from Earth. This is motivated by the work of Adams et al. ([87]), in which the probability distribution for the distance of galactic CCSN from Earth is shown to peak around ∼9 kpc, and the CCSN location distribution is assumed to trace the disk of the galaxy. The galactic CCSN rate is estimated at ð0.6 − 10.5Þ × 10−2 CCSNe yr−1 [87], and the youngest known galactic CCSN remnant, Cassiopeia A, is believed to be ∼330 yrs old [108].

The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) is home to the most active star-formation region in the Local Group, the Tarantula Nebula [109]. Located at RA 5h23m34:5s and Dec −69°4502200 [110], the LMC is an irregular galaxy located ∼50 kpc from Earth [111,112], and is estimated to have a CCSN rate of ð1.5 − 3.1Þ × 10−3 CCSNe yr−1 [82,84]. The last CCSN observed in the LMC was SN1987A, a type II-pec SN first detected on February 23, 1987, by Kamiokande II via its neutrino burst [3]. The M31 galaxy, also referred to as Andromeda, is the most luminous galaxy in the Local Group. Located at RA 0h42m44:4s andDec 41°1608.600 [113],M31 is a spiral galaxy located ∼0.77 Mpc from Earth [114], and is estimated to have a CCSN rate of ∼2.1 × 10−3 CCSNe yr−1 [82,84]. No CCSNe have yet been observed from M31.

The M82 galaxy, five times brighter than the Milky Way, exhibits starburst behavior incited by gravitational interaction with M81, a neighboring galaxy [115]. Located at RA 9h55m52:7s and Dec 69°4004600 [116], M82 is an irregular starburst galaxy at a distance ∼3.52 Mpc from Earth [117]. Its CCSN rate is estimated to be ∼ð2.1 − 20Þ × 10−2 CCSNe yr−1 [118,119]. The most recent CCSN in M82 was SN2008iz, a Type II SN first observed on May 3, 2008 [120]. We summarize the relevant information on the aforementioned
galaxies in Table I.

B. Analysis times
The SuperNova Early Warning System (SNEWS) [121] Collaboration aims to provide a rapid alert for a nearby CCSN to the astronomical community, as triggered by neutrino observations. CCSNe within ∼100 kpc will have an associated neutrino detection. The Large Volume Detector (LVD), a kiloton-scale liquid scintillator experiment [122], and Super-Kamiokande (Super-K), a waterimaging Cerenkov-detector [123], will be able to detect neutrinos from a CCSN with full detection probability (100%) out to 30 kpc and 100 kpc, respectively [123,124]. BOREXINO (a 300-ton liquid scintillator experiment [125]) is able to detect all galactic CCSNe [126], while IceCube (a gigaton-scale long string particle detector made of Antarctic ice [127]) can detect a CCSN in the Large Magellanic Cloud at 6σ confidence. For CCSNe within ∼0.66 kpc, KamLAND (a kiloton-scale liquid scintillator detector [128]) will be able to detect neutrinos from pre-SN stars at 3σ confidence [129]. Pagliaroli et al. [80] were the first to make quantitative statements on the use of neutrino detection from CCSNe as external triggers for an associated GW search, in the context of an analytical approximation for the anti-electron neutrino luminosity, L¯νe , as a function of time. More realistic models for Lν (see, e.g. [130,131]) suggest that over ∼95% of the total energy in neutrinos is emitted …


TABLE I. Summary of the location, distance, and CCSN rate of the four host galaxies considered. Galaxy name Right ascension (degrees) Declination (degree) Distance [Mpc] CCSN rate [×10−2 yr−1] References Milky Way 266.42 −29.01 0.01 0.6–10.5 [87] LMC 80.89 −69.76 0.05 0.1–0.3 [82,84,110,112] M31 10.69 41.27 0.77 0.2 [82,84,113,114] M82 148.97 69.68 3.52 2.1–20 [116–119] S. E. GOSSAN et al. PHYSICAL REVIEW D 93, 042002 (2016) 042002-4


… within ∼10 s of core bounce. Given the neutrino observation time, t0, we consider a 60 s on-source window, aligned ½−10; 50_ s about t0. We note that a more detailed neutrino light curve will allow the time of core bounce to be localized to ∼few ms [132]. This would permit the use of a much shorter on-source window, resulting in a lower background rate and higher detection sensitivity. For more distant CCSNe, the neutrino burst from core collapse will likely not be detected, but an EM counterpart will be observed. The on-source window derived from the EM observation time is dependent on progenitor star characteristics (i.e. progenitor star radius, shock velocity), as well as the observation cadence. The first EM signature of a CCSN comes at the time of shock breakout, tSB, when the shock breaks through the stellar envelope. Type Ib and type Ic SNe, hereafter referred to jointly as type Ibc SNe, have very compact progenitors (R_ ∼ fewð1 − 10ÞR⊙) and have been stripped of their stellar envelopes through either intense stellar winds (i.e. Wolf- Rayet stars) or mass transfer to a binary companion [133,134]. Li ([135]) studied the properties of shock breakout for a variety of type Ibc SN progenitor models in the context of semianalytic density profiles and found shock breakout times in the range tSB ∈ ½1; 35_s. As a conservative estimate, we choose tSB;min ¼ 60 s.

For type II SNe, however, the progenitors are supergiant stars. Type II-pec SNe, such as SN1987A, have blue supergiant progenitors, with typical stellar radii of ∼25R⊙. More typically, the progenitors are red supergiant stars,with typical stellar radii of ∼ð100–1000ÞR⊙ [133,134]. Hydrodynamic simulations of type II-P SN progenitors from Bersten et al. [136] andMorozova et al. [137] show typical breakout times of tSB ∼ few10 h. As a conservative estimate, we consider the unstripped type II-P progenitor from Morozova et al. [137] and use tSB;max ¼ 50 h. In addition to theoretical predictions of the time to shock breakout, the cadence of observations of the CCSN host galaxy must be considered when deriving the on-source window. For actively observed galaxies, we expect to have no greater than ∼24 h latency between pre- and post-CCSN observations. We consider two observational scenarios in which the time scale between pre- and post-CCSN images are tobs ∼ 1 h and 24 h, for sources in M31 and M82, respectively. We construct the on-source window assuming that shock breakout occurs immediately after the last pre-SN image. Given the time of the last pre-SN observation, the EM trigger time t0, we consider an on-source window of length tSB þ tobs, aligned ½−tSB; tobs_ about t0. We summarize the on-source windows used for all observational scenarios considered in Table II. The strain detected by a GW interferometer, hðtÞ, is given by hðtÞ ¼ Fþðθ;Φ; ψÞhþðtÞ þ F×ðθ;Φ; ψÞh×ðtÞ; ð1Þ where Fþ;×ðθ;Φ; ψÞ are the antenna response functions of the detector to the two GW polarizations, hþ;×ðtÞ. For a source located at sky position ðθ;ΦÞ in detector-centered coordinates, and characterized by polarization angle ψ, Fþ;× are given by Fþ ¼ 12ð1 þ cos2θÞ cos 2ϕ cos 2ψ − cos θ sin 2ϕ sin 2ψ; F× ¼ 12 ð1 þ cos2θÞ cos 2ϕ sin 2ψ − cos θ sin 2ϕ cos 2ψ: ð2Þ

The antenna response of the detectors is periodic with an associated time scale of one sidereal day, due to the rotation of the Earth. As a consequence, the sensitivity of GW searches using on-source windows much shorter than this time scale will be strongly dependent on the antenna response of the detectors to the source location at the relevant GPS time. In Fig. 1, we show the sum-squared antenna response for each detector over one sidereal day, for sources located at the Galactic center, LMC, and M31. As the sensitivity of the detector network is a function of time, we wish to choose a central trigger time t0 for which the antenna sensitivity is representative of the average over time. To represent the time-averaged sensitivity of the detector network, we choose GPS trigger times of t0 ¼ 871645255, t0 ¼ 871784200, and t0 ¼ 871623913 for the Galactic, LMC, and M31 sources, respectively. For CCSNe in M82, relying on low-cadence EM triggers, the shortest considered on-source window is longer than one sidereal day and, as such, the entire range of antenna responses is encompassed during the on-source window. We choose GPS trigger time t0 ¼ 871639563 for the M82 source, such that the 74 h on-source window is covered by the 100 h stretch of S5 data recolored for this study.

TABLE II. Summary of the observational counterpart used to derive the on-source window, in addition to the associated on-source
window, for type Ibc and type II SNe in the four considered host galaxies. Galaxy name Observational counterpart On-source window for type Ibc [s] On-source window for type II [s] Milky Way Neutrino, EM ½−10;þ50_ ½−10;þ50_ LMC Neutrino, EM ½−10;þ50_ ½−10;þ50_ M31 EM ½−60;þ3600_ ½−180000;þ3600_ M82 EM ½−60;þ86400_ ½−180000;þ86400_ OBSERVING GRAVITATIONAL WAVES FROM CORE- … PHYSICAL REVIEW D 93, 042002 (2016) 042002-5


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C. Detector networks
As mentioned previously, the GW detector noise will be
non-Gaussian and nonstationary. To this end, we use real
GW data from the fifth LIGO science run (S5) and the first
Virgo science run (VSR1), recolored to the target noise
amplitude spectra densities (ASDs)2 for the considered
observational scenarios. See Sec. VB for technical details
on the recoloring procedure used.
We consider a subset of the observing scenarios outlined
in Aasi et al. [138] to explore how the sensitivity of the
Advanced detectors to CCSNe will evolve between 2015
and 2019. For all these cases, we characterize the detector
sensitivity by the single-detector binary neutron star (BNS)
range, dR. The BNS range is the standard figure of merit
for detector performance, and is defined as the sky
location- and orientation-averaged distance at which a
ð1.4; 1.4ÞM⊙ BNS system can be detected with an SNR,
ρ ≥ 8. The 2015 scenario assumes a two-detector network
comprised of the two Advanced LIGO detectors (H,L)
operating with BNS range dR;HL ¼ 54 Mpc and is hereafter
referred to as the HL 2015 scenario. The 2017 scenario
assumes a three-detector network comprised of the two
Advanced LIGO detectors (H,L) operating with BNS range
dR;HL ¼ 108 Mpc, and the Advanced Virgo detector operating
with BNS range of dR;V ¼ 36 Mpc, and is hereafter
referred to as the HLV 2017 scenario. In 2019, we consider
a three-detector network, HLV, with the two Advanced
LIGO detectors operating with BNS range dR;HL ¼
199 Mpc, and the Advanced Virgo detector operating with
BNS range dR;V ¼ 154 Mpc, referred to as the HLV 2019
observational scenario [56,138]. Figure 2 shows the onesided
of Advanced LIGO and Advanced
Virgo as used to recolor the data for each observational
scenario considered.
A broad range of multidimensional processes may emit
GWs during core collapse and the subsequent postbounce
CCSN evolution. These include, but are not necessarily
limited to, turbulent convection driven by negative entropy
or lepton gradients and the SASI (e.g., [12–14,21,37]),
rapidly rotating collapse and bounce (e.g., [17,39,75]),
postbounce nonaxisymmetric rotational instabilities (e.g.,
[38,44,139,140]), rotating collapse to a black hole (e.g.,
[40]), asymmetric neutrino emission and outflows [12–14],
and, potentially, rather extreme fragmentation-type instabilities
occuring in accretion torii around nascent neutron
stars or black holes [43]. A more extensive discussion of
GWemission from CCSNe can be found in recent reviews
on the subject in Refs. [1,2,141]. Most of these emission
FIG. 1. The sum-squared antenna response, F2 ¼ F2
þ þ F2
over one mean sidereal day for the two Advanced LIGO detectors
(H,L), and the Advanced Virgo detector, V, for sources located
toward the Galactic center (top), LMC (middle), and M31
(bottom). For each galaxy, we indicate the chosen GPS trigger
time t0 with a dashed black line.
FIGffiffiffi.ffiffiffiffi2ffiffiffi.ffiffi The predicted amplitude spectral densities (ASDs),
of the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo detector
noise for the considered 2015, 2017, and 2019 detector
networks [56,138].
2The one-sided amplitude spectral density is the square root of
the one-sided power spectral density, ShðfÞ.
S. E. GOSSAN et al. PHYSICAL REVIEW D 93, 042002 (2016)
mechanisms source GWs in the most sensitive frequency
band of ground-based laser interferometers (∼50–
1000 Hz). Exceptions (and not considered in this study)
are black hole formation (fpeak ∼ few kHz), asymmetric
neutrino emission, and asymmetric outflows (fpeak≲10 Hz).
For the purpose of this study, we consider a subset of the
above GWemission mechanisms and draw example waveforms
from two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional
(3D) CCSN simulations (we refer to these waveforms as
numerical waveforms in the following). In addition, we
construct analytical phenomenological waveforms that
permit us to constrain extreme emission scenarios. We
consider GW emission in the quadrupole approximation,
which has been shown to be accurate to within numerical
error and physical uncertainties for CCSNe [142]. In
Tables III and IV, we summarize key properties of the
selected numerical and phenomenological waveforms,
respectively, including the total energy emitted in GWs,
EGW, the angle-averaged root-sum-squared GW strain,
hhrssi, and the peak frequency of GW emission, fpeak.
We define fpeak as the frequency at which the spectral GW
energy density, dEGW=df, peaks.
We compute EGW as in [6] from the spectral GWenergy
density, dEGW=df, as

; ð3Þ
¼ 2
ð2πfÞ2j ~̈I
ijj2; ð4Þ
ijðfÞ ¼

ijðtÞe−2πift ð5Þ
is the Fourier transform of ̈I
ijðtÞ, the second time derivative
of the mass-quadrupole tensor in the transverse-traceless
To construct the strain for different internal source
orientations, we present the projection of GW modes,
HlmðtÞ, onto the -2 spin-weighted spherical harmonic basis,
−2Ylmðι; ϕÞ [145]. Using this, we may write
TABLE III. Key characteristics of “numerical” waveforms from multidimensional CCSN simulations. EGW is the energy emitted in
GWs, hhrssi is the angle-averaged root-sum-square strain [Eq. (11)], and fpeak is the frequency at which the spectral GW energy
dEGW=df peaks.
Waveform type Ref. Waveform name hhrssi [10−22 at 10 kpc] fpeak [Hz] EGW [M⊙c2]
2D neutrino-driven convection and SASI [14] yak 1.89 888 9.08 × 10−9
3D neutrino-driven convection and SASI [37] müller1 1.66 150 3.74 × 10−11
3D neutrino-driven convection and SASI [37] müller2 3.85 176 4.37 × 10−11
3D neutrino-driven convection and SASI [37] müller3 1.09 204 3.25 × 10−11
3D neutrino-driven convection and SASI [29] ott 0.24 1019 7.34 × 10−10
2D rotating core collapse [17] dim1 1.05 774 7.69 × 10−9
2D rotating core collapse [17] dim2 1.80 753 2.79 × 10−8
2D rotating core collapse [17] dim3 2.69 237 1.38 × 10−9
3D rotating core collapse [143] sch1 5.14 465 2.25 × 10−7
3D rotating core collapse [143] sch2 5.80 700 4.02 × 10−7
TABLE IV. Key characteristics of the considered waveforms from phenomenological models. EGW is the energy emitted in GWs,
hhrssi is the angle-averaged root-sum-square strain [Eq. (11)], and fpeak is the frequency at which the spectral GW energy density
dEGW=df peaks.
Waveform type Ref. Waveform name hhrssi [10−20 at 10 kpc] fpeak [Hz] EGW [M⊙c2]
Long-lasting bar mode [144] longbar1 1.48 800 2.98 × 10−4
Long-lasting bar mode [144] longbar2 4.68 800 2.98 × 10−3
Long-lasting bar mode [144] longbar3 5.92 1600 1.90 × 10−2
Long-lasting bar mode [144] longbar4 7.40 800 7.46 × 10−3
Long-lasting bar mode [144] longbar5 23.41 800 7.45 × 10−2
Long-lasting bar mode [144] longbar6 14.78 1600 1.18 × 10−1
Torus fragmentation instability [43] piro1 2.55 2035 6.77 × 10−4
Torus fragmentation instability [43] piro2 9.94 1987 1.03 × 10−2
Torus fragmentation instability [43] piro3 7.21 2033 4.99 × 10−3
Torus fragmentation instability [43] piro4 28.08 2041 7.45 × 10−2
hþ − ih× ¼ 1
HlmðtÞ−2Ylmðι; ϕÞ; ð6Þ
where ðι; ϕÞ are the internal source angles describing
It has been shown that for CCSN systems, the quadrupole
approximation method of extracting GWs is sufficiently
accurate [142]. As such, we consider only the l ¼ 2
mode and can write the mode expansion as
zz − 1
xx þ ̈I
xz þ ïI

xx − ̈I
xyÞ; ð7Þ
sin ιð1 _ cos ιÞe_iϕ;
ð1 _ cos ιÞ2e_2iϕ: ð8Þ
The root-sum-square strain, hrss, is defined as
hrss ¼

þðt; ι; ϕÞ þ h2
×ðt; ι; ϕÞ_
: ð9Þ
Using the mode decomposition introduced previously, we
construct an explicit angle-dependent expression for hrss,
whichwe analytically average over all source angles.Defining
hhrssi ¼
dΩhrss; ð10Þ
we obtain
hhrssi ¼ G

xx þ ̈I
yy þ ̈I
− ð̈I
yy þ ̈I
zz þ ̈I
þ 3ð̈I
xy þ ̈I
xz þ ̈I
: ð11Þ
A. Numerical waveforms
1. Gravitational waves from convection and SASI
Postbounce CCSN cores are unstable to convection. The
stalling shock leaves behind an unstable negative entropy
gradient, leading to a burst of prompt convection soon after
core bounce. As the postbounce evolution proceeds, neutrino
heating sets up a negative entropy gradient in the region of net
energy deposition (the gain layer) behind the shock, leading to
neutrino-driven convection. Simultaneously, neutrino diffusion
establishes a negative lepton gradient in themantle of the
proto-neutron star (NS), leading to proto-NS convection. The
GW signal from these convective processes has a broad
spectrum. The prompt convection GW emission occurs at
frequencies in the range 100–300 Hz, while neutrino-driven
convection at later times sources GWemission with significant
power at frequencies between∼300–a1000 Hz (increasing
with time [12–15]). Proto-NS convection contributes at
the highest frequencies (≳1000 Hz). While the frequency
content of the signal is robust, the phase is stochastic due to
the chaotic nature of turbulence [1,74].
In addition to convection, depending on progenitor
structure (and, potentially, dimensionality of the simulation;
cf. [29,31,146–148]), the shock front may become
unstable to SASI, which leads to large-scale modulations of
the accretion flow. This results in sporadic large amplitude
spikes in the GW signal when large accreting plumes are
decelerated at the edge of the proto-NS (e.g., [12,13]).
We draw sample waveforms for GWs from nonrotating
core collapse from the studies of Yakunin et al. [14], Müller
et al. [37], and Ott et al. [29]. Yakunin et al. performed 2D
simulations of neutrino-driven CCSNe. We choose a waveform
obtained from the simulation of a 15M⊙ progenitor star
(referred to as yak in the following). Due to axisymmetry, the
extracted waveform is linearly polarized. Müller et al. performed
3D simulations of neutrino-driven CCSNe with a
number of approximations to make the simulations computationally
feasible. Importantly, they started their simulations
after core bounce and assumed a time-varying inner boundary,
cutting out much of the proto-neutron star. Prompt and
proto-neutron star convection do not contribute to their
waveforms, and higher frequencyGWemission is suppressed
due to the artificial inner boundary.As the simulations are 3D,
the Müller et al. waveforms have two polarizations, and we
usewaveforms ofmodels L15-3,W15-4 (two different 15M⊙
progenitors), and N20-2 (a 20M⊙ progenitor). We refer to
these waveforms as müller1, müller3, and müller2,
respectively. Ott et al. performed 3D simulations of neutrinodriven
CCSNe. The simulations are general-relativistic and
incorporate a three-species neutrino leakage scheme. As the
simulations are 3D, the Ott et al. waveforms have two
polarizations, and we use the GW waveform from model
s27fheat1.05 (a 27M⊙ progenitor).We hereafter refer to this
waveform as ott.We plot the GWsignal for the ott model
in the top panel of Fig. 3.
2. Gravitational waves from rotating core
collapse and bounce
Rotation leads to oblateness (an l ¼ 2,m ¼ 0 quadrupole
deformation) of the inner quasihomologously collapsing
core. Extreme accelerations experienced by the inner core
at bounce lead to a large spike in the GW signal at bounce,
followed by ringdown of the proto-neutron star as it settles to
its new equilibrium state (see, e.g., [1,17,149] for a detailed
S. E. GOSSAN et al. PHYSICAL REVIEW D 93, 042002 (2016)
discussion). The GWsignal is dependent on the mass of the
inner core, its angular momentum distribution, and the
equation of state of nuclear matter. There are significant
uncertainties in these and it is difficult to exactly predict the
time series of the GW signal. Nevertheless, work by several
authors [11,16,20,149–152] has demonstrated that GW
emission from rotating core collapse and bounce has robust
features that can be identified and used to infer properties of
the progenitor core.
We draw three sample waveforms from the axisymmetric
general-relativistic (conformally flat) simulations of
Dimmelmeier et al. [17]. All were performed with a
15-M⊙ progenitor star and the Lattimer-Swesty equation
of state [153]. The three linearly polarized waveforms
drawn from [17], s15A2O05-ls, s15A2O09-ls, and
s15A3O15-ls, differ primarily by their initial rotation rate
and angular momentum distribution. We refer to them as
dim1 (slow and rather uniform precollapse rotation),
dim2 (moderate and rather uniform precollapse rotation),
and dim3 (fast and strongly differential precollapse rotation),
respectively. We plot the GW signal for the dim2
model in the middle panel of Fig. 3.
Shortly after core bounce, nonaxisymmetric rotational
instabilities driven by rotational shear (e.g., [38,41,
139,143,154]) or, in the limit of extreme rotation, by a
classical high-T=jWj instability at T=jWj ≳ 25 − 27%
[155], where T is the rotational kinetic energy and W is
the gravitational energy, may set in. The nonaxisymmetric
deformations may lead to a signficant enhancement of the
GW signal from the postbounce phase of rotating CCSNe.
We choose two sample waveforms from the 3D Newtonian,
magnetohydrodynamical simulations of Scheidegger et al.
[143], which use a neutrino leakage scheme. All were
performed with a 15M⊙ progenitor star, and the Lattimer-
Swesty equation of state [153]. Due to the 3D nature of the
simulations, the Scheidegger et al. waveforms have two
polarizations.We employ waveforms for models R3E1ACL
(moderate precollapse rotation, toroidal/poloidal magnetic
field strength of 106G=109G), and R4E1ACL (rapid precollapse
rotation, toroidal/poloidal magnetic field strength
of 1012G=109G). We hereafter refer to these waveforms as
sch1 and sch2, respectively. We plot the GW signal for
the sch1 model in the bottom panel of Fig. 3.
B. Phenomenological waveforms
1. Gravitational waves from long-lived
rotational instabilities
Proto-neutron stars with ratio of rotational kinetic energy
T to gravitational energy jWj, β ¼ T=jWj ≳ 25–27%
become dynamically unstable to nonaxisymmetric deformation
(with primarily m ¼ 2 bar shape). If β ≳ 14%, an
instability may grow on a secular (viscous, GW backreaction)
time scale, which may be seconds in protoneutron
stars (e.g., [156]). Furthermore, proto-neutron stars
are born differentially rotating (e.g., [157]) and may thus be
subject to a dynamical shear instability driving nonaxisymmetric
deformations that are of smaller magnitude than in
the classical instabilities, but are likely to set in at much
lower β. Since this instability operates on differential
FIG. 3. The time domain GW strain for representative models
of convection and standing accretion-shock instability (ott; top
panel), bounce and ringdown of the proto-neutron star (dim2;
middle panel), and non-axisymmetric rotational instabilities
(sch1; bottom panel) as seen by an equatorial (ι ¼ π=2;
ϕ ¼ 0) observer at 10 kpc. We note that the typical GW strain
from rotating core collapse is roughly an order of magnitude
larger than the typical GW strain from neutrino-driven explosions.
In addition, the typical GW signal duration of bounce and
ringdown of the proto-neutron star is ∼ few 10 ms, compared to
the typical GW signal duration of ∼ few 100 ms for neutrinodriven
explosions. Non-axisymmetric rotational instabilities,
however, may persist for ∼ few 100 ms.
rotation, it may last for as long as accretion maintains
sufficient differential rotation in the outer proto-neutron star
(e.g., [38,139,143,154,158,159] and references therein).
For simplicity, we assume that the net result of all these
instabilities is a bar deformation, whose GW emission we
model in the Newtonian quadrupole approximation for a
cylinder of length l, radius r and mass M in the x–y plane,
rotating about the z axis. We neglect spin-down via GW
backreaction. The second time derivative of the bar’s
reduced mass-quadrupole tensor is given by
ij ¼ 1
Mðl2 − 3r2ÞΩ2
−cos 2Ωt sin 2Ωt
sin 2Ωt cos 2Ωt
; ð12Þ
where Ω ¼ 2πf is the angular velocity of the bar (see, e.g.,
[144] for details). We then obtain the GW signal using the
quadrupole formula in Eq. (7) [7,145].
We generate representative analytic bar waveforms by
fixing the bar length to 60 km, its radius to 10 km and
varying the mass in the deformationM, the spin frequency f,
and duration of the bar mode instability Δt. In practice,
we scale the waveforms with a Gaussian envelope
∝ expð−ðt − ΔtÞ2=ðΔt=4Þ2) to obtain nearly zero amplitudes
at start and end of the waveforms, resulting in
waveforms of sine-Gaussian morphology. In this study,
we consider three bars of mass M ¼ 0.2M⊙, with ðf;ΔtÞ¼
ð400 Hz; 0.1sÞ, ð400 Hz; 1sÞ, and ð800 Hz; 0.1sÞ (hereafter
referred to as longbar1, longbar2, and longbar3,
respectively), and three bars of mass M ¼ 1M⊙ with
ðf;ΔtÞ ¼ ð400 Hz; 0.1sÞ, ð400 Hz; 1sÞ, and ð800 Hz;
0.025sÞ (hereafter referred to as longbar4, longbar5,
and longbar6, respectively).We choose these parameters
to explore the regime of strong bar-mode GW emission
with the constraint that the strongest signal must emit less
energy than is available in collapse, EGW ≲ 0.15M⊙c2.
Values of hhrssi, fpeak, and EGW for the six representative
waveforms used in this study are shown in Table IV.We plot
the GW signal for the longbar1 model in the top panel
of Fig. 4.
2. Disk fragmentation instability
If the CCSN mechanism fails to reenergize the stalled
shock (see, e.g., [160]), the proto-neutron star will collapse
to a black hole on a time scale set by accretion (e.g., [161]).
Provided sufficient angular momentum, a massive selfgravitating
accretion disk/torus may form around the
nascent stellar-mass black hole with mass MBH. This
scenario may lead to a collapsar-type gamma-ray burst
(GRB) or an engine-driven SN [162].
The inner regions of the disk are geometrically thin due to
efficient neutrino cooling, but outer regions are thick and may
be gravitationally unstable to fragmentation at large radii
[43,163]. We follow work by Piro and Pfahl ([43]), and
consider the case in which a single gravitationally bound
fragment forms in the disk and collapses to a low-mass
neutron star withMf ∼ 0.1 − 1M⊙ ≪ MBH. We then obtain
the predicted GW signal using Eq. (7) [7,145], assuming the
fragment is orbiting in the x–y plane, such that
ij ¼2
−cos2Ωt −sin2Ωt
−sin2Ωt cos2Ωt
: ð13Þ
For more technical details, including the waveform generation
code, we direct the reader to [43,164]. We consider
waveforms from four example systems with ðMBH;MfÞ ¼
ð5M⊙; 0.07M⊙Þ, ð5M⊙; 0.58M⊙Þ, ð10M⊙; 0.14M⊙Þ, and
ð10M⊙; 1.15M⊙Þ (hereafter denoted piro1, piro2,
piro3, and piro4, respectively). Values of hhrssi, fpeak,
and EGW for the four representative waveforms used in this
study are shown in Table IV. We plot the GW signal for the
piro2 model in the bottom panel of Fig. 4.
3. Ad hoc signal models
It is possible that there are GW emission mechanisms
from CCSNe that we have not considered. In this case, it is
instructive to determine the sensitivity of our GW search to
short, localized bursts of GWs in time-frequency space. For
this reason, we include ad hoc signal models in our signal
injections, in addition to the aforementioned physically
motivated signal models. We take motivation from the allsky,
all-time searches for GW bursts performed in the intial
FIG. 4. The time domain GW strain for representative models
of bar-mode instability (longbar1; top panel) and disk fragmentation
instability (piro2; bottom panel), as seen by a polar
(ι ¼ 0; ϕ ¼ 0) observer at 10 kpc.
S. E. GOSSAN et al. PHYSICAL REVIEW D 93, 042002 (2016)
detector era [59,165], and consider linearly and elliptically
polarized sine-Gaussian GW bursts. Characterized by
central frequency, f0, and quality factor, Q, the strain is
given by
hþðtÞ ¼ A
1 þ α2
t2=Q2Þ sinð2πf0tÞ;
h×ðtÞ ¼ Aα expð−2πf20
t2=Q2Þ cosð2πf0tÞ; ð14Þ
where A is some common scale factor, and α is the
ellipticity, where α ¼ 0 and 1 for linearly and circularly
polarized waveforms, respectively. Assuming isotropic
energy emission, we may compute the energy in GWs
associated with a sine-Gaussian burst as
EGW ¼ π2c3
rss; ð15Þ
where d is the distance at which hrss is computed. In
Table V, we list the f0, Q, and α values for all sine-Gaussian
waveforms considered in this study.
A. X-Pipeline: A search algorithm for gravitational
wave bursts
X-Pipeline is a coherent analysis pipeline used to
search for GW transient events associated with CCSNe,
gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), and other astrophysical triggers.
X-Pipeline has a number of features designed specifically
to address the challenges discussed in Sec. II.
For example, since the signal duration is uncertain,
X-Pipeline uses multiresolution Fourier transforms to
maximize sensitivity across a range of possible signal
durations. The pixel clustering procedure applied to
time-frequency maps of the data is designed to find
arbitrarily shaped, connected events [166]. The potentially
nonstationary data is whitened in blocks of 256 s duration,
removing the effect of variations in background noise levels
which typically happen on longer time scales. Shortduration
noise glitches are removed by comparing measures
of interdetector correlations to a set of thresholds that
are tuned using simulated GW signals from the known sky
position of the CCSNe and actual noise glitches over the
on-source window. The thresholds are selected to satisfy
the Neyman-Pearson optimality criterion (maximum detection
efficiency at fixed false-alarm probability), and are
automatically adjusted for the event amplitude to give
robust rejection of loud glitches. We provide a brief
overview of the functionality of X-Pipeline here,
specifically in the context of CCSN searches, and direct
the reader to the X-Pipeline technical document for a
more in-depth description [78].
As previously introduced in Sec. III B, an external EM or
neutrino trigger at time t0 can be used to define an
astrophysically motivated on-source window, such that
the expected GW counterpart associated with the external
trigger is enclosed within the on-source window. For the
purposes of this study, we choose four distinct on-source
windows centered about t0—see Sec. III B for detailed
information. Given a specified external source location,
ðα; δÞ, the N data streams observed from an N-detector
network are time-shifted, such that any GW signals present
will arrive simultaneously in each detector. The timeshifted
data streams are then projected onto the dominant
polarization frame, in which GW signals are maximized,
and null frame, in which GW signals do not exist by
construction [167,168].
The data streams in the dominant polarization frame are
processed to construct spectrograms, and the 1% of timefrequency
pixels with the largest amplitude are marked as
candidate signal events. For each cluster, a variety of
information on the time and frequency characteristics is
computed, in addition to measures of cluster significance,
which are dependent on the total strain energy jhj2, of the
cluster. For the purposes of this study, a Bayesian likelihood
statistic is used to rank the clusters. We direct the
reader to [64,78] for a detailed discussion of the cluster
quantities used by X-Pipeline.
For statements on the detection of GWs to be made,
we must be able to show with high confidence that
candidate events are statistically inconsistent with the
background data. To do this, we consider the loudest
event statistic, where the loudest event is the cluster in the
on-source with the largest significance; we hereafter
denote the significance of the loudest event Son
[169,170]. We estimate the cumulative distribution of
the loudest significances of background events, CðSmaxÞ,
and set a threshold on the false alarm probability (FAP)
TABLE V. Key characteristics of the ad hoc sine-Gaussian
waveforms employed in this study. f0 is the central frequency, Q
is the quality factor, and α is the ellipticity. See Eq. (14) in
Sec. IV B 3 for details.
Model name f0 [Hz] Q α
sglin1, sgel1 70 3 0,1
sglin2, sgel2 70 9 0,1
sglin3, sgel3 70 100 0,1
sglin4, sgel4 100 9 0,1
sglin5, sgel5 153 9 0,1
sglin6, sgel6 235 3 0,1
sglin7, sgel7 235 9 0,1
sglin8, sgel8 235 100 0,1
sglin9, sgel9 361 9 0,1
sglin10, sgel10 554 9 0,1
sglin11, sgel11 849 3 0,1
sglin12, sgel12 849 9 0,1
sglin13, sgel13 849 100 0,1
sglin14, sgel14 1053 9 0,1
sglin15, sgel15 1304 9 0,1
that the background could produce an event cluster in the
on-source with significance Son
max. If CðSon
maxÞ is greater than
the threshold imposed, we admit the loudest event as a
potential GW detection candidate. For the purposes of this
study, we impose FAP ¼ 0.1%, which corresponds to
∼3.3σ confidence.
For Gaussian noise, the significance distribution of
background events can be estimated analytically, but as
mentioned in Sec. II C, glitches produce excess-power
clusters in the data that may be mistaken for a GW event.
However, the method used by X-Pipeline to construct
the dominant polarization frame results in strong correlations
between the incoherent energy I (from the individual
data streams) and the coherent energy E (from the combined
data streams) for glitches [171]. A comparison of I
and E for candidate events can thus be used to veto events
that have the same statistical properties as the background
noise. A threshold curve in ðI;EÞ space is defined, and veto
tests may be one-sided (all events on one side of the curve
are vetoed), or two-sided (events within some band
centered on the I ¼ E diagonal are vetoed). The threshold
curve is chosen to optimize the ratio of glitch rejection to
signal acceptance.
In practice, the statistics of the distribution of background
events in the data are determined by applying unphysically
large time-shifts, hereafter referred to as “lags,” to the
detector streams. Additionally, we generate known signal
events by injecting simulated GW signals into the data
streams. The background and signal events are split into two
sets, used for pipeline tuning and testing detection performance,
respectively. A large range of trial threshold cuts are
applied for the background rejection test, and the statistics of
the background events computed. The minimum injection
amplitude for which 50% of the injections (1) survive the
threshold cuts and (2) have a FAP ≤ 0.1%, h50%
rss , for a given
family of GW signal models is computed. This is known as
the upper limit on hrss at 50%confidence—see Sec.VD. The
optimal threshold cut is defined as that for which h50%
rss is
minimized at the specified FAP. Unbiased statements on the
background distribution andwaveform detectability can then
be made by processing the tuning set events with the
thresholds obtained previously.
B. Recoloring of GW detector data
The many methods used to detect GW transients can
often be proven to be near optimal in the case of stationary,
Gaussian noise. Data from the GW detectors, however, is
not expected to be stationary or Gaussian, and as such, it is
important to test the efficacy of one’s detection method in
nonstationary and non-Gaussan noise. To this end, we
utilize observational data taken by the Hanford and
Livingston LIGO detectors during the S5 science run, in
addition to data taken by the Virgo detector during the
VSR1 science run. The S5 data is now publically available
via the LIGO Open Science Center (LOSC) [172].
Recoloring of these data to the predicted power spectral
densities (PSDs) of the Advanced detectors during different
stages during the next five years (see Sec. III C) permits a
more realistic estimation of the sensitivity of the advanced
detectors to CCSNe.
We recolor the GW data using the gstlal software
packages [173,174], following the procedure outlined below:
(i) Determine PSD of original data.
(ii) Whiten data using a zero-phase filter created from
the original PSD.
(iii) Recolor whitened data to desired PSD.
This method provides non-Gaussian, nonstationary detector
data including noise transients, tuned to any sensitivity
desired. For specific details on the detector networks, and
noise PSDs considered, see Sec. III C. For the purposes of
this study, we recolor 100 hours of data from the H1 and L1
detectors during the S5 science run, and the V1 detector
during the VSR1 science run.
C. Injection of known signal events
As mentioned previously in Sec. VA, it is a wellestablished
practice to inject known signal events into
detector data for analysis (see, e.g., [175]). This process
permits the estimation of detection efficiency for GWs from
signal models of varying time-frequency characteristics.
A GW source can be characterized by five angles—ðι; ϕ;
θ;Φ; ψÞ, where ðθ;Φ; ψÞ describe the sky location and
polarization of the source, while ðι; ϕÞ describe the internal
orientation of the source relative to the line of sight of the
observer. In this study, the source location in Earth-centered
coordinates ðθ;ΦÞ are fixed by right ascension α, and
declination δ of the source, in addition to the GPS time at
geocenter of the injected signal—see Sec. III for more
detailed information. The polarization angle ψ relating the
source and detector reference frames is distributed uniformly
in ½0; 2π_ for all injections. For CCSN systems, it is not
possible to know the inclination angle ι and azimuthal angle
ϕ. To represent this, we inject signals with many different
ðι; ϕÞ, to average over all possible internal source
As mentioned previously in Sec. IV, we may construct
the strain for different internal source orientations by
projecting the mode coefficients HlmðtÞ onto the −2
spin-weighted spherical harmonics, −2Ylmðι; ϕÞ. Making
use of geometric symmetries for different astrophysical
systems permits the use of polarization factors to describe
hþ;×ðι; ϕÞ as a function of hþ;×;0
¼ hþ;×ðι ¼ 0; ϕ ¼ 0Þ.
Defining polarization factors nþ;×ðι; ϕÞ, we may write the
strain at an arbitrary internal orientation as
hþðι; ϕÞ ¼ nþðι; ϕÞhþ;0; ð16Þ
h×ðι; ϕÞ ¼ n×ðι; ϕÞh×;0; ð17Þ
S. E. GOSSAN et al. PHYSICAL REVIEW D 93, 042002 (2016)
where the form of nþ;×ðι; ϕÞ is dependent on the symmetries
of the system considered.
For linearly polarized signals (e.g., linear sine-Gaussian
injections), we apply
þ ¼ 1; ð18Þ
× ¼ 0: ð19Þ
For elliptically polarized signals (e.g., bar-mode instability,
disk fragmentation instability, and elliptical sine-
Gaussian injections), we apply
þ ¼ 1
ð1 þ cos ιÞ2; ð20Þ
× ¼ cos ι: ð21Þ
For the 2D CCSN emission models, the axisymmetric
system results in a linearly polarized GW signal. The
system has azimuthal symmetry, resulting in zero amplitude
for all GW modes except H20. From Eq. (6), we see
that the strain hþ varies with ι as
hþðιÞ ¼ heq
þ sin2 ι;
where heq
þ is the strain as seen by an equatorial observer.We
are thus able to apply SN polarization factors:
þ ¼ sin2ι;
× ¼ 0:
For the 3D CCSN emission models, the GW polarizations
are nontrivially related to the internal source
angles, and as such, the hþ and h× strains must be
computed for specific internal configurations using
Eq. (6). No additional polarization factors are applied
for these waveforms.
For all emission models for which nþ;× can be defined,
we inject signals uniform in cos ι ∈ ½−1; 1_. For the 3D
CCSN emission models, we inject signals uniformly drawn
from a bank of 100 realizations of ðcos ι; ϕÞ, where cos ι ∈
½−1;−7=9;…; 1_ and ϕ ∈ ½0; 2π=9;…; 2π_.
For each observational scenario, we inject 250 injections
across the considered on-source window.
D. Upper limits and detection efficiencies
To make detection statements and set upper limits on the
GWs emitted from CCSNe, we must compare the cumulative
distribution of background event significance,
CðSmaxÞ, estimated from off-source data, to the maximum
event significance in the on-source data Son
max. If no onsource
events are significant, we may instead proceed to set
frequentist upper limits on the GWs from the CCSN of
interest, given the emission models considered.
As alluded to previously in Sec. VA, we may define the
50% confidence level upper limit on the signal amplitude
for a specific GW emission model as the minimum
amplitude for which the probability of observing the signal,
if present in the data, with a cluster significance louder than
on is 50%. In this study, we aim to determine the 50%
upper limit, as defined here, as a function of
(i) Source distance d50%, in the context of astrophysically
motivated signal models.
(ii) Root-sum-square amplitude h50%
rss , in the context of
linear and elliptical sine-Gaussian waveforms. It is
more relevant, astrophysically to consider the corresponding
50% upper limit on the energy emitted in
GWs, E50%
GW , which we compute from h50%
rss using
Eq. (15).
After the on-source data has been analyzed and Smax
computed, we inject a large number of known signal events
for families of waveforms for which h50%
rss and d50% (where
applicable) are desired. For a single waveform family, we
outline the upper limit procedure:
(i) Inject many waveforms at different times during the
on-source window and with a broad range of
polarization factors.
(ii) Compute the largest significance S of any clusters
associated with the injected waveforms (observed
within 0.1 seconds of the injection time) that have
survived after application of veto cuts.
(iii) For all injections, compute the percentage of injections
for which S > Smax
on . This is called the
“detection efficiency,” E.
(iv) Repeat procedure, modifying the injection amplitude
of each waveform by a scaling factor.
The final goal is to produce a plot of the detection
efficiency as a function of hrss or distance d for each
waveform family, such that one may place upper limits on
the GW emission models considered. From the efficiency
curve, one may determine h50%
rss as
Eðhrss ¼ h50%
rss Þ ¼ 0.5: ð22Þ
Given an astrophysical signal injected at hinj
rss corresponding
to fiducial distance dinj, we may define d50% as
d50% ¼
dinj: ð23Þ
We note that X-Pipeline rescales the detection efficiency
to account only for injections placed at times at which
detector data is available. Without this correction, the
efficiencies computed asymptote to the duty cycle fraction
for the on-source window considered. For the data considered
in this study, the total duty cycle is typical of the S5 and
VSR1 science runs, which is described in detail in Sec. II B.
E. Systematical uncertainties
The uncertainties in the efficiencies, upper limits and
exclusion capabilities of our analysis method are related to
non-Gaussian transients in the data, in addition to calibration
uncertainties. There are a number of systematic
uncertainties present in this study that will non-negligibly
affect the results. We consider only a short period of
recolored data from LIGO’s S5 and Virgo’s VSR1 datataking
runs, over which the frequency and character of non-
Gaussian transients changed non-negligibly. The noise
transients in advanced LIGO data are also significantly
different to those in initial LIGO data, and the non-
Gaussianities are not yet understood well enough to make
quantitative statements on the statistical behavior of the
data. For these reasons, we only quote results to two
significant figures in this study. The statistical uncertainty
in detector calibration can be characterized by the 1σ
statistical uncertainty in the amplitude and phase of the
signal. Uncertainties in phase calibration can be estimated
by simulating its effect on the ability to recover test
injections. We direct the reader to Kalmus [176], in which
it is shown that phase uncertainties contribute negligibly to
the total systematic error, and thus we only consider
amplitude uncertainties in this study. The target design
amplitude uncertainties in the frequency range 40–2048 Hz
for Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo are 5% at 2σ
confidence [177]. As such, the upper limits for h50%
rss and
d50% obtained from a search for GWs from CCSNe in the
Advanced detector era will have intrinsic ∼5% uncertainties.
For comparison, typical amplitude uncertainties due to
calibration in S5 were below 15% [98].
In this section, we present the results for the detectability
of the consideredGWemission models described in Sec. IV.
We consider realistic waveform models from numerical
simulations of core collapse. For the ‘garden-variety’
CCSN models considered (müller1, müller2,
müller3, ott, and yak), convection and SASI are the
dominant GW emission processes. For rotating core collapse,
we choose models where bounce and ringdown of
the proto-neutron star (dim1, dim2, and dim3), and
nonaxisymmetric rotational instabilities (sch1 and
sch2) are the dominant GWemission processes. As these
waveforms will only be detectable from CCSNe at close
distances (d ≲ 100 kpc), we consider CCSNe in the direction
of the Galactic center and LMC, for which the
coincident neutrino signal will be detected. We use a
conservative on-source window of ½−10;þ50_ s about
the time of the initial SNEWS trigger.
For more distant CCSNe, we consider more speculative,
extreme phenomenological GW emission models for longlived
bar-mode instabilities (longbar1, longbar2,
longbar3, longbar4, longbar5, and longbar6)
and disk fragmentation instabilities (piro1, piro2,
piro3, and piro4). More distant CCSNe will not be
detectable via neutrinos, but the EM counterpart will be
observed. We consider CCSNe in M31 and M82, and use
on-source windows assuming a compact, stripped progenitor
star of 61 minutes and 24 hour 1 minute, respectively.
For an extended, red supergiant progenitor, we use onsource
windows of 51 hours and 74 hours for M31 and
M82, respectively.
For all host galaxies, we consider ad hoc sine-Gaussian
bursts to assess the sensitivity of our analysis to localized
bursts of energy in time-frequency space.
We remind the reader of the large systematic uncertainties
associated with these results and, as such, quote all
results to two significant figures.
A. Numerical waveforms
We present the distances d50% at which 50% detection
efficiency is attained (the measure we use for ‘detectability’)
for the considered numerical waveforms in Table VI,
for CCSNe in the direction of the Galactic center and LMC,
in the context of a 60-second on-source window.
For CCSNe in the direction of the Galactic center, we see
that emission from neutrino-driven convection and SASI is
detectable out to ∼ð1.0–2.4Þ kpc with the HL 2015
TABLE VI. The distance in kpc at which 50% detection efficiency is attained, d50% for the numerical corecollapse
emission models considered using the HL 2015, HLV 2017, and HLV 2019 detector networks, for
CCSNe in the direction of the Galactic center and the LMC.
d50% [kpc] for Galactic center d50% [kpc] for LMC
Waveform HL 2015 HLV 2017 HLV 2019 HL 2015 HLV 2017 HLV 2019
müller1 2.3 3.3 4.7 2.5 3.8 5.3
müller2 1.0 1.5 2.2 1.2 1.8 2.5
müller3 1.2 1.5 2.4 1.4 1.6 2.7
ott 2.4 3.4 5.5 3.2 4.9 7.2
yak 1.5 1.8 5.1 1.6 2.1 6.2
dim1 7.0 9.1 17 7.4 10 18
dim2 11 17 29 13 20 32
dim3 13 21 38 18 32 50
sch1 31 43 78 36 48 90
sch2 35 50 98 45 56 120
S. E. GOSSAN et al. PHYSICAL REVIEW D 93, 042002 (2016)
detector network. This increases to ∼ð1.5–3.4Þ kpc and
∼ð2.2–5.5Þ kpc with the HLV 2017 and HLV 2019
detector networks, respectively.
Similarly, we see that emission from bounce and ringdown
of the central proto-neutron star core is detectable out
to ∼ð7.0–13.4Þ kpc for CCSNe in the direction of the
Galactic center with the HL 2015 detector network. This
increases to ∼ð9.1–21Þ kpc and ∼ð17–38Þ kpc with the
HLV 2017 and HLV 2019 detector networks, respectively.
Emission from nonaxisymmetric rotational instabilities
from CCSNe in the direction of the Galactic center is
detectable out to ∼ð31–35Þ kpc with the HL 2015 detector
network. This increases to∼ð43–50Þ kpc and∼ð78–98Þ kpc
with the HLV 2017 and HLV 2019 detector networks,
Assuming the fiducial distance of a galactic CCSN to be
∼9 kpc, this suggests that we will be able to detect emission
from the more extremely rapidly rotating CCSN waveforms
considered with the HL 2015 detector network, while all
considered rapidly rotating waveforms will be detectable
for CCSNe in the direction of the Galactic center with the
HLV 2017 and HLV 2019 detector networks. We will be
limited to detection of nonrotating CCSNe within 5.5 kpc
with the most sensitive HLV 2019 detector network.
Considering CCSNe in the direction of the LMC, we see
that emission from neutrino-driven convection and SASI is
detectable out to ∼ð1.2–3.2Þ kpc with the HL 2015
detector network. This increases to ∼ð1.6–4.9Þ kpc
and ∼ð2.5–7.2Þ kpc with the HLV 2017 and HLV 2019
detector networks, respectively. Given that the LMC
is ∼50 kpc away, this shows that emission from
neutrino-driven convection and SASI will not be detectable
from CCSNe in the LMC.
Emission from bounce and ringdown of the central protoneutron
star core is detectable out to ∼ð7.4–18Þ kpc and
∼ð11–32Þ kpc for CCSNe in the direction of the LMC with
the HL2015andHLV2017 detector networks, respectively.
This increases to ∼ð18–50Þ kpcwith the HLV 2019 detector
network. This suggests that emission from the bounce and
subsequent ringdown of the proto-neutron star may not be
detectable fromCCSNe in theLMCfor even themost rapidly
rotating waveform considered with the HLV 2019 detector
We see that emission from nonaxisymmetric rotational
instabilities from CCSNe in the direction of the LMC
is detectable out to∼ð36–45Þ kpcwith the HL 2015 detector
network. This increases to∼ð48–56Þkpc and∼ð90–120Þ kpc
with the HLV 2017 and HLV 2019 detector networks,
respectively. This suggests we will be able to detect
emission from nonaxisymmetric rotational instabilities
for CCSNe in the LMC with the HLV 2017 detector
FIG. 5. The detection efficiency as a function of distance for the numerical waveforms in this study, in the context of a 1 minute onsource
window and the HLV 2019 detector network. The top row is for galactic sources, and the bottom row is for sources in the Large
Magellanic Cloud. In each plot, 50% and 90% detection efficiency is marked with a dashed black line, and the distance to the host galaxy
is marked with a vertical blue line.
Figure 5 presents the detection efficiency as a function
of distance, for the numerical waveforms considered,
for CCSNe directed toward theGalactic center and theLMC.
B. Extreme phenomenological models
We present the distances at which 50% detection
efficiency is attained d50% (the measure we use for
“detectability”) for the considered phenomenological
waveforms in Table VII, for CCSNe in the direction of
M31, in the context of 61-minute and 51-hour on-source
windows, and M82, in the context of 24-hour 1-minute and
74-hour on-source windows.
For CCSNe in the direction of M31, we see that emission
from long-lived bar-mode instabilities will be detectable
out to ∼ð0.5–5.2Þ Mpc [∼ð0.2–2.7Þ Mpc] when using a
61-minute [51-hour] on-source window, with the HL 2015
detector network. The distances at which 50% detection
efficiency is reached, d50%, increase to ∼ð0.8–8.6Þ Mpc
[∼ð0.3–3.4Þ Mpc] and ∼ð1.6–18Þ Mpc (∼ð0.8–9.9Þ Mpc)
when using a 61-minute [51-hour] on-source window, with
the HLV 2017 and HLV 2019 detector networks,
Emission from disk fragmentation instabilities will be
detectable out to ∼ð0.9–12Þ Mpc [∼ð0.6–6.5Þ Mpc] and
∼ð1.3–19Þ Mpc [∼ð0.6–6.1Þ Mpc] when using 61-minute
[51-hour] on-source windows with the HL 2015 and
HLV 2017 detector networks, respectively, for CCSNe
in the direction of M31. These distances increase to
∼ð2–28Þ Mpc [∼ð1.4–18Þ Mpc] when using a 61-minute
[51-hour] on-source window, with the HLV 2019 detector
Assuming a fiducial distance of 0.77 Mpc for a CCSN in
M31, this suggests that we will be able to detect emission
from all considered long-lived bar-mode instability waveforms
with the HLV 2019 detector network, while the
detectable fraction of considered waveforms with the HL
2015 and HLV 2017 detector networks is strongly
dependent on the on-source window length. Taking the
51-hour on-source window as the most pessimistic scenario,
∼50% and ∼67% of the considered bar-mode
instability waveforms are detectable with the HL 2015
and HLV 2017 detector networks, respectively.
Similarly, emission from the considered disk fragmentation
instabilities waveforms will be detectable for a
CCSN in M31 with the HLV 2019 detector network for
all considered on-source windows. For the 51-hour onsource
window, we see that ∼75% of the considered diskfragmentation
instability waveforms are detectable with
both the HL 2015 and HLV 2017 detector networks.
We note that, for some models, the d50% values computed
for the M31 source, when using a 51-hour on-source
window, are smaller for the HLV 2017 detector network
than the HL 2015 network. While this might at first seem
counter-intuitive, this is due to the requirement for coincident
data between detectors to run a coherent analysis. The
lower sensitivity of the HV and LV detectors for the data
analyzed, compared with the sensitivity of the HL detectors,
reduces the effective total sensitivity of the network. We
include the third detector, however, as it increases the
overall duty cycle of the network.
For CCSNe in the direction of M82, we see that emission
from long-lived bar-mode instabilities will be detectable out
to ∼ð0.3–3Þ Mpc [∼ð0.4–4.3Þ Mpc] and ∼ð0.3–3.4Þ Mpc
[∼ð0.4–5.2Þ Mpc] using a 24 hour 1 minute [74 hour]
on-source window, with the HL 2015 and HLV 2017
detector networks. This increases to ∼ð1–9.7Þ Mpc
[∼ð0.7–8.3Þ Mpc] for a 24 hour 1 minute [74 hour] onsource
window, with the HLV 2019 detector network.
For emission from disk fragmentation instabilities for
CCSNe in the direction of M82, the distance reach is
∼ð0.5–6.4Þ Mpc [∼ð0.7–7.5Þ Mpc] when using a 24-hour
1-minute [74-hour] on-source window with the HL 2015
detector network. This increases to ∼ð0.7–8.6Þ Mpc
[∼ð0.8–9.5Þ Mpc] and ∼ð1.3–16Þ Mpc [∼ð1.3–15Þ Mpc]
for the HLV 2017 and HLV 2019 detector networks,
TABLE VII. The distance in Mpc at which 50% detection efficiency is attained, d50% for the numerical core-collapse emission models
considered using the HL 2015, HLV 2017, and HLV 2019 detector networks, for CCSNe in the direction of M31 and M82, in the
context of 61-minute (51-hour) and 24-hour 1-minute (74-hour) on-source windows, respectively.
d50% [Mpc] for M31 d50% [Mpc] for M82
Waveform HL 2015 HLV 2017 HLV 2019 HL 2015 HLV 2017 HLV 2019
longbar1 0.5 [0.2] 0.8 [0.3] 1.6 [0.8] 0.3 [0.4] 0.3 [0.4] 1.0 [0.7]
longbar2 1.5 [0.7] 2.5 [0.9] 4.8 [2.8] 0.9 [1.1] 1.0 [1.2] 3.0 [2.1]
longbar3 1.0 [0.6] 1.6 [0.6] 3.6 [2.2] 0.8 [0.8] 0.7 [0.8] 2.4 [1.8]
longbar4 2.0 [1.1] 2.8 [1.2] 6.0 [3.8] 1.1 [1.5] 1.4 [1.5] 3.9 [2.8]
longbar5 5.2 [2.7] 8.6 [3.4] 18 [9.9] 3.0 [4.3] 3.4 [5.2] 9.7 [8.3]
longbar6 2.1 [1.1] 3.4 [1.1] 6.7 [4.7] 1.4 [1.9] 1.4 [1.7] 4.4 [3.7]
piro1 0.9 [0.6] 1.3 [0.6] 2.0 [1.4] 0.5 [0.7] 0.7 [0.8] 1.3 [1.3]
piro2 3.9 [2.2] 6.3 [2.6] 9.4 [5.8] 2.2 [3.2] 3.0 [3.8] 5.7 [5.8]
piro3 1.9 [1.3] 3.4 [1.8] 4.9 [3.7] 1.1 [1.3] 1.5 [1.9] 2.8 [3.1]
piro4 12 [6.5] 19 [6.1] 28 [18] 6.4 [7.5] 8.6 [9.5] 16 [15]
S. E. GOSSAN et al. PHYSICAL REVIEW D 93, 042002 (2016)
Given a fiducial distance of ∼3.52 Mpc for CCSNe in
M82, we note that only the most extreme waveform
considered for both long-lived bar-mode instabilities and
disk fragmentation instabilities are detectable with the HL
2015 detector network. Of the considered long-lived barmode
instability waveforms, only the most extreme emission
model is detectable with the HLV 2017 detector
network, while 50% of the waveforms will be detectable
with the HLV 2019 detector network. For emission from
disk-fragmentation instabilities, we see that only 50% of
the waveforms considered will be detectable out to M82
with the HLV 2017 and HLV 2019 detector networks.
We note that the distance reach for these models
increases with the larger on-source window for the M82
source. This is due to the properties of the data over the two
considered on-source windows. As previously mentioned,
real data from GW detectors is not stationary, and as such,
the PSD of the data is a function of time. Time periods over
which the detector data is glitchy will have locally have
significantly decreased sensitivity when compared to a
much larger time period over which the detector is more
well behaved. This means that if the on-source window
derived happens to lie in a glitchy period of detector data,
the sensitivity of the detector network will, unfortunately,
be decreased. In repeating the search for a larger on-source
window, over which the average sensitivity is much greater,
the distance reach for the emission models considered may
appear to increase. The detectability of the waveforms
considered in this study is established by injecting a
number of waveforms over the full on-source window
considered. The distance reach for the longer on-source
window in this case appears to increase because we inject
waveforms uniformly across the on-source window, meaning
that many “test” signals are placed at times in the data
stretch where the sensitivity is greater, in addition to the
shorter, more glitchy, time period where the sensitivity is
not as great. This is a great example of how realistic noise
can significantly affect the detectability of GWs from
CCSNe at different times, and is motivation for improving
active noise suppression techniques for the detectors.
Figures 6 and 7 present the detection efficiency as a
function of distance for the considered phenomenological
extreme emission models, for CCSNe in the direction of
M31 and M82 for the HLV 2019 detector network, using
on-source windows motivated by type Ibc and Type II
CCSNe, respectively.
C. Sine-Gaussian waveforms
The energy emitted in GW, E50%
GW , required to attain the
root-sum-squared strain at 50% detection efficiency, h50%
rss ,
for the sine-Gaussian bursts considered is presented in
FIG. 6. The detection efficiency as a function of distance for the phenomenological waveforms considered in this study, in the context
of the on-source window astrophysically motivated by a stripped envelope type Ibc SN progenitor and the HLV 2019 detector
configuration. The top row is for sources in M31 with an on-source window of 61 minutes, and the bottom row is for sources in M82
with a 24-hour 1-minute on-source window. In each plot, 50% and 90% detection efficiency is marked with a dashed black line, and the
distance to the host galaxy is marked with a vertical blue line.
Fig. 8 for sources in the direction of the Galactic center,
LMC, M31, and M82.
For the ad hoc sine-Gaussian bursts considered, we use
GW as the figure of merit for detection.
For CCSNe in the direction of the Galactic center, we see
that the typical E50%
GW values are ∼ð8–110Þ × 10−10M⊙ for
sine-Gaussian bursts with central frequencies of
∼ð554–1304Þ Hz, the typical frequencies of emission for
CCSNe, using a 60-second on-source window with the HLV
2019 detector network. For CCSNe in the direction of the
LMC, we find E50%
GW ∼ ð1–20Þ × 10−8M⊙ in the same frequency
range. We remind the reader that for the numerical
waveforms considered, EGW∼ð0.1–4000Þ×10−10M⊙. This
is consistent, as X-Pipeline is more sensitive to sine-
Gaussian bursts, and we find that only the more rapidly
rotating models considered are detectable.
For CCSNe in the direction of M31, we find typical E50%
values of ∼ð7–100Þ × 10−6M⊙ across the frequency range
considered, using a 51-hour on-source window with the
HLV 2019 detector network. For CCSNe in the direction of
M82, we find E50%
GW ∼ ð3–60Þ × 10−4M⊙ across the same
frequency range. We remind the reader that for the
extreme phenomenological waveforms considered,
EGW∼ð2–600Þ×10−4M⊙. This is again consistent with
our previous results, as we find that all waveforms are
detectable for CCSNe in M31 with the HLV 2019 detector
network, but only the more extreme cases are detectable out
to M82.
The next galactic CCSN will be of great importance to
the scientific community, allowing observations of unprecedented
accuracy via EM, GW, and neutrino messengers.
Using GW waveform predictions for core collapse from
state-of-the-art numerical simulations, and phenomenological
waveform models for speculative extreme GWemission
scenarios, we make the first comprehensive statements on
detection prospects for GWs from CCSNe in the Advanced
detector era.
Given a known sky location,we outline a search procedure
for GW bursts using X-Pipeline, a coherent network
analysis pipeline that searches for excess power in timefrequency
space, over some astrophysically motivated time
period (or on-source window). The GWdetector data is non-
Gaussian, nonstationary, and often contains loud noise
transients. For this reason, it is beneficial to minimize the
on-source window to reduce the probability of glitchiness or
extreme Gaussian fluctuations being present in the detector
FIG. 7. The detection efficiency as a function of distance for the phenomenological waveforms considered in this study, in the context
of the on-source window astrophysically motivated by a type II SN progenitor and the HLV 2019 detector configuration. The top row is
for sources in M31 with an on-source window of 51 hours, and the bottom row is for sources in M82 with a 74-hour on-source window.
In each plot, 50% and 90% detection efficiency is marked with a dashed black line, and the distance to the host galaxy is marked with a
vertical blue line.
S. E. GOSSAN et al. PHYSICAL REVIEW D 93, 042002 (2016)
For CCSNe within ∼100 kpc, the coincident neutrino
signal will be detected, allowing the time of core collapse to
be determined to within a few tens of milliseconds. Using
an conservative asymmetric on-source window of
½−10;þ50_ seconds around the start time of the neutrino
signal, we consider hypothetical CCSNe in the direction of
the Galactic center and the LMC. We find that neutrinodriven
CCSN explosions, believed to account for ∼99% for
CCSNe, will be detectable within 2.4 kpc, 3.5 kpc, and
5.5 kpc in 2015, 2017, and 2019, respectively. Rapidly
rotating CCSNe, however, will be detectable throughout
the galaxy from 2017, and the most rapidly rotating model
considered will be detectable out to the LMC in 2019.
Rapidly rotating CCSNe with nonaxisymmetric rotational
instabilities will be detectable out to the LMC and beyond
from 2015.
More distant CCSNe will not have coincident neutrino
observations, and so the on-source window must be derived
using EM observations. Using recent studies of light curves
for type Ibc and type II CCSNe (see, e.g. [135–137]), we
assume that, if the time of shock breakout tSB is observed,
the time of core collapse can be localized to between
1 minute and 50 hours. Unfortunately, shock breakout is
rarely observed, and an observation cadence time delay,
FIG. 8. The energy emitted in GW, E50%
GW , required to attain the root-sum-squared strain at 50% detection efficiency, h50%
rss , for the sine-
Gaussian bursts considered in this study, in the context of the HLV 2019 detector network. The top row is for sources directed toward the
Galactic center (left) and the Large Magellanic Cloud (right), for both of which a 1-minute on-source window is used. The middle row is
for sources in M31, considering 61-minute and 51-hour on-source windows (left and right plots, respectively). The bottom row is for
sources in M82, considering on-source windows of 24 hours and 1 minute, and 74 hours (left and right plots, respectively). Distances of
10 kpc, 50 kpc, 0.77 kpc, and 3.52 Mpc are used to compute E50%
GW for sources in the galaxy, Large Magellanic Cloud, M31, and M82,
tobs, between the last pre-CCSN and first post-CCSN
images is introduced. Given this, we construct an on-source
window of ½−tSB; tobs_ about the time of the last pre-CCSN
image. Frequently observed galaxies, such as those for
which the CCSN rate is high, are likely to have CCSNe
detected within one day of shock break-out. As such, we
consider two observational scenarios where tobs ¼ 1 hour
and 24 hours for hypothetical CCSNe in M31 and M82,
respectively. In the context of EM observations of type Ibc
CCSNe, we use on-source windows of 61 minutes and
24 hour 1 minute for CCSNe in M31 and M82, respectively.
Correspondingly for type II CCSNe, we use onsource
windows of 51 hours and 74 hours for CCSNe in
M31 and M82, respectively. We find that most of the
extreme GW emission models considered are observable
out to M31 with the HL 2015 detector network when using
a 61-minute on-source window, while all models are
observable when using the 51 hour on-source window in
2019. Only the most extreme emission models considered
are observable out to M82 with the HL 2015 detector
network, but approximately half of the models considered
will be detectable out to M82 and beyond in 2019. This
allows us to either detect events associated with or exclude
such extreme emission models for CCSNe in M31 and M82
with the HLV 2019 detector network.
In anticipation of unexpected GW emission from
CCSNe, we additionally consider sine-Gaussian bursts
across the relevant frequency range for all observational
scenarios studied. We find that the sensitivity of our search
method is comparable, if not slightly improved, to that
found for the realistic waveform models considered. This is
to be expected as X-Pipeline, and other clusteringbased
burst search algorithms, are most sensitive to short
bursts of GW energy localized in frequency space. It
should be noted, however, that such simple waveform
morphologies are more susceptible to being confused for
noise transients. As such, a more complicated waveform
morphology, as found for realistic GW predictions for
CCSNe, can actually improve detectability [178].
Detection prospects for GWs from CCSNe can be
improved by refining light curve models for CCSNe,
and increasing observation cadence, so as to reduce the
on-source window as derived from EM observations as
much as possible. Improvement of stationarity and glitchiness
of detector data, in addition to increasing the detector
duty cycle, will improve detectability of GWs from
CCSNe. Further to this, more second-generation GW
detectors such as KAGRA and LIGO India will improve
the overall sensitivity of the global GW detector network
and could potentially allow for neutrino-driven CCSN
explosions to be observable throughout the Galaxy.
The authors thank Alan Weinstein, Peter Kalmus, Lucia
Santamaria, Viktoriya Giryanskaya, Valeriu Predoi, Scott
Coughlin, James Clark, MichałWąs, Marek Szczepanczyk,
Beverly Berger, and Jade Powell for many fruitful discussions
that have benefitted this paper greatly. We thank
the CCSN simulation community for making their gravitational
waveform predictions available for this study.
LIGO was constructed by the California Institute of
Technology and Massachusetts Institute of Technologywith
funding from the National Science Foundation, and operates
under cooperative agreement No. PHY-0757058. Advanced
LIGO was built under Award No. PHY-0823459. C. D. O. is
partially supported by National Science Foundation Grants
No. PHY-1404569 and No. CAREER PHY-1151197 and by
the Sherman Fairchild Foundation. This paper carries LIGO
Document No. LIGO-P1400233.
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Zakharchenko: Ukraine Hangs Between Dictatorship and Counterrevolution

By Alexander Zakharchenko

Zakharchenko Official Website
Edited autotranslation by Quemado Institute
February 21, 2016

Alexander Zakharchenko

Alexander Zakharchenko

The anniversary of the coup in Kiev was marked by new riots, and promises another Maidan.

First you need to remember that these events are taking place against the backdrop of a deep political crisis, the degradation of the economy and monstrous decline in living standards of Ukrainian citizens. Why is this happening? Because as a result of the coup and the violent overthrow of the legitimate authorities, whcih in Kiev is called “revolution”, processes of destruction were launched that no one can stop. It happens to all revolutions. They all ran to the people and the state of self-destruction process [sic]. That is why we are against any revolutions, according to their version. And the Russian and Ukrainian peoples have exhausted the limit on revolutions.

Where is the exit? Historically, there have been only two. Either the victory of the counter-revolution, or the victory of the revolutionary dictatorship, which then, painfully, through blood and sweat, the people return to public life. Here we are just at the limit of the second option and the Russian and Ukrainian people are exhausted. Many intelligent people in Russia and Ukraine said and say that the people and the state will not survive another revolution. Here we see the result in Ukraine. The process of self-destruction is happening on the Maidan, and Ukraine will not survive.

About dictatorship in Kiev, I do not believe it, because, firstly, there are no candidates for the role of dictator. Well, certainly not Poroshenko! And secondly, the people will not accept dictatorship, if there were another coup and the henchmen of Bandera and neo-Nazis come to power.

So I do not have any optimism about the development of the situation in Ukraine. And I have is no cause for joy. Because Ukrainians are a sorry, sorry people. On this I will have to remind you that we did not fight, and do not fight, with the Ukrainian people. We are fighting against Bandera and their accomplices, who have usurped power in Kiev.

Is a counter-revolution possible? Of course. But it depends on whether the Ukrainian people gather together to overthrow entrenched usurpers in Kiev, and whether there are leaders who will bring the Ukrainian people to a return to common sense, traditional moral values and economic revival. That is, leaders who will not make the Ukrainians become someone else—the Europeans, for example— once again become themselves, with their real history, real culture, and real heroes.

So I was quite surprised by the pogroms in Kiev. It is clear that now, after the authorities, who were initially illegitimate from the point of view of the law, have lost the moral legitimacy, and the Maidan flywheel [tr?] will go the next round and eventually destroy Ukraine, or the Ukrainian people will stop it and return to normal life. We in Donbass have already made our choice and are ready to render assistance to the Ukrainian people, if they will gather to stop the Maidan flywheel and return to normal life.

–February 21, 2016, Donetsk.


Editor’s note: please excuse possible errors in translation.

Christmas Prayer for Donbass

Christ Jesus We Send This Christmas Prayer
Finally from me, my Christmas greeting to all of you. All who have lent their precious time to fighting for freedom against Kiev’s thugs. The lying junta of Ukraine are firing random mortar shells into communities consisting primarily of elderly. Ukrainian forces drunk, out of control. In my view it’s imperative we support Russia in her determination to make the USA & EU back down from their aggression. Who knows what 2016 will bring? We must keep up the pressure on the USA @NATO & @EU to halt their aggression against #Russia. And the complicit & compliant prostitutes @Amnesty @HRW & @OSCE who pretend to be unbiased but are in fact agents of the #US @StateDept. Kiev MUST be defeated. It’s crimes against humanity MUST be exposed. It’s drunken thug army MUST be made to leave the #Donbass. The relatives of all those who @Poroshenko’s scum army murdered MUST have their chance to spit in the killers’ faces. @Guardian @BBC @CNN. We MUST see an end to #Ukraine’s specious lies, propaganda and slanderous remarks about a #Russia that has shown integrity throughout. Kiev MUST be defeated. It’s crimes against humanity MUST be exposed. It’s drunken thug army MUST be made to leave the #Donbass. The people of #Donetsk, #Lugansk & elsewhere in the #Donbass MUST be left in peace to love #Russia as they have always done.
By @Novorossiyan on Twitter
December 24, 2015


DPR Rebuilds Destroyed Homes in Debaltsevo

Handing Keys to First Houses, Rebuilt and Restored
After Bombing by UAF

Alexander Zakharchenko official website
Autotranslation (with minor editing by Quemado Institute)
December 18, 2015

Alexander Zakharchenko with residents

Alexander Zakharchenko with residents

On December 17, the Head of the People’s Republic of Donetsk Alexander Zakharchenko handed the keys and documents of the first houses built in the framework of the reconstruction program after shelling by the APU [UAF – Ukrainian Armed Forces].

The first in a new home and moved in are residents from Debalcevo and Uglegorsk. During the presentation of the keys, the Head of State noted that in Donetsk People’s Republic will be re-built and restored everything destroyed by punitive [battalions].

The first phase of the rehabilitation program involves the construction of 111 housing new “turnkey” houses in Debaltsevo, featuring Uglegorsk, miner, Zugres. Currently, 100% ready are 30 houses. The stage of readiness of the rest is 99%. These objects are the final cosmetic work. In addition, the new housing installed plumbing, heating system, radiators, windows, entrance and interior doors. Footage of buildings is determined by the number of residents registered in the destroyed houses.

Fully complete construction is planned for the end of the year. After visiting the new home and communicating with Alexander Zakharchenko Novoselov made a number of organizational lessons. In general, the Head of the Republic appreciated the quality of houses built and the work done on 4+.

slavdec18y“It’s good that the house built in the period of two and a half months. Well, that was able to build a home at all, no matter what. But I’m pretty picky critic, so my rating: 4+. With builders, we will discuss it separately. But this phase of recovery has shown us what we can do, pointed to errors and omissions, which we try to avoid in the future,” said Alexander Zakharchenko.

Residents of new homes are happy. They recall with horror the days of shelling by the APU [UAF], the days of the occupation. Debalcevo resident Olga Shvedchenko says that on the day when a shell hit their house, they were lucky – if you can call it luck – no one was home, so they stayed alive.

“The house was burning for two days, it was impossible to enter. I thought I was to remain homeless, but thanks to Alexander – we have not given up. The house is built in such a short time. At the same time did everything for free. Many thanks. Yes, soon it will be difficult, because with the housing had been destroyed and all our belongings. But we can live with – most importantly, that there is no war,” said Olga Shvedchenko.

slavdec18xDebalcevo Uglegorsk and more than any other city of Donetsk People’s Republic suffered during the fighting. Uglegorsk was destroyed by 90%, Debalcevo – 80%.

As the mayor of Uglegorsk Oleg Neledva [said] today residents are beginning to return to his hometown. If immediately after the release of the Ukrainian Uglegorsk occupiers its population was about 4 thousand people, today this figure has almost doubled – 7500 residents. In the spring of 2016 in the Donetsk People’s Republic will continue the construction of housing destroyed by shelling the APU, the next stage will be built 450 houses of the private sector.