Alfred Landé (13 December 1888–30 October 1976) was a German-American physicist known for his contributions to quantum theory. He is responsible for the Landé g-factor and an explanation of the Zeeman Effect.
Alfred Landé was born on 13 December 1888 in Elberfeld, Rhineland, Germany, today part of the city of Wuppertal.
In 1913 Landé was sent by Arnold Sommerfeld, his thesis advisor at the University of Munich, to be a special assistant for physics to David Hilbert at the University of Göttingen, to replace Paul Peter Ewald, whom Sommerfeld had sent to the same position in 1912. There, Landé also came in close contact with Max Born. In physics, it was the era of the Bohr atom model. The leaders of Göttingen science included many greats that Landé was to come in contact with including Hilbert, Edmund Landau, Carl Runge and Ludwig Prandtl (the noted aerodynamics theoreticist). Also Niels Bohr and Hendrik Lorentz visited Göttingen frequently.
Landé obtained his doctorate under Sommerfeld at the University of Munich, two weeks prior to the start of the First World War. He joined the Red Cross and served for two years on the eastern front before being invited by Max Born to join him at the Artillery Testing Commission, one of the few scientific sections of the army. Apart from their work on artillery location by sound ranging, they began to examine the cohesive forces and compressibility of crystals. This work led to the unexpected result that the electron trajectories in atoms were not at all like planetary orbits, which at the time was the usual understanding of the electron in an atom.
Landé studied atomic structure intensively for the next seven years. In 1916 Sommerfeld had begun to apply the new atomic theory to form a general quantization rule. Landé’s work over cubic and tetrahedral electron trajectories (“cube atoms”) became of great interest to Sommerfeld, Peter Debye and Bohr.
In 1919 Landé unexpectedly turned to spectroscopy even though the continuation of the study of the spatial orientation of the atoms was the most pressing problem of the time. He turned to the problem of atoms with several electrons, in particular to the simplest case, the spectrum of helium. The spectroscopy of helium had been examined experimentally by Friedrich Paschen, but there did not exist a theoretical interpretation. The spectrum showed non-combining single and double (actually triplet, as it turned out later) terms so that it seemed as if helium was made of two different substances (which is explained today as the result of electron spin).
Landé’s work contained several new important ideas, including the rule of vector addition of two quantum-mechanical angular momenta J1 and J2. His findings and postulates were later confirmed by quantum theory.
Landé’s Frankfurt investigations (December 1920 until April 1921) ended with the discovery of the well-known Landé g-formula and an explanation for the anomalous Zeeman Effect. The Landé g-factor is now defined through mJ, the magnetic quantum number.
In 1923, Landé stated the Landé interval rule, a rule dealing with the relation between an electron’s spin and orbit.
During 1925 Ralph Kronig, who presented the idea of electron spin some months before George Uhlenbeck and Samuel Goudsmit, was working as an assistant to Landé.
In late 1929 Landé was invited to Ohio State University in Columbus, to present a series of lectures. After a second stay (1930-1931) in Columbus, Ohio, he decided to establish himself in the United States. Landé was a forerunner in a phase of new interpretation of quantum theory, from which concrete physical statements about experimentally verifiable facts can be made. This happened, after the first phase of the interpretation of the theory with well-known discussions between Niels Bohr, Werner Heisenberg and Wolfgang Pauli who favoured the Copenhagen Interpretation, opposed in varying degrees by Erwin Schrödinger, Louis de Broglie and, most notably, Albert Einstein. Quantum mechanics was providing many new predictions to be investigated and proved or disproved at the time. The renewed interest expressed itself in new experiments with new technical methods, on individual quantum systems, individual atoms, electrons and photons.
However, after 1950 (and for the rest of his life), Landé turned energetically against the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum theory, requiring, as did Einstein, an objectively real description of physical processes. This change was driven by Landé’s perception that wave-particle duality was an unnecessary misrepresentation of quantum processes that he instead explained by developing a new unitary particle formulation, without dualistic reference to waves. Landé based his new formulation upon non-quantal principles of symmetry and invariance, with Duane’s rule  for quantisation of momentum exchange with space-periodic structures, and Leibniz’s Principle of Cause-Effect Continuity  to explain the intrinsically probabilistic nature of quantum processes. The Landé interpretation is considered a minority interpretation of quantum mechanics.
Landé died on 30 October 1976 in Columbus, Ohio.
[This excellent article originated at Wikipedia]
Lande’s definition of reality is pragmatic and therefore useful. For example, in the Challenger Disaster, the O-ring seals kicked back.
ORIGINAL CONTENT OF THIS POST
[This backup website is sometimes used for experimental purposes, as explained on the home page. Items published here are not necessarily politically correct or newsworthy — editor.]
Below is the original content of this post. Rather than delete the post, we merely changed its content, so that links to the URL still work.
The above information about Alfred Lande has been added to go with the new title “Alfred Lande Defines Reality: If You Kick It It Kicks Back”. That is so readers who are expecting an article about the great quantum physicist won’t be disappointed.
Why did we replace the original title of this post to Alfred Lande’s definition of reality? Because the original post was intended to “kick” whoever seems to be hacking our websites, to see if they kick back.
The original post was the following:
Thanks Loads for Suppressing Our Website,
You F*****g censors! Now F**K OFF!!
August 29, 2015
(We apologize to our kind readers and followers. This diatribe is meant not for you, but for whatever US agency or think tank is hacking or censoring our website.)
Stop censoring Quemado Institute, whoever you hackers are!
We will trace you!
We will publish your identities!
And we will see that you suffer penalties.
Whether you are private hackers, members of US Government think tanks, or employees of the NSA or CIA, the truth will emerge.
And you will pay the price.
You have no right to censor the truth! Leave our website alone!
Get the H*LL OUT of our publications NOW!!
Would you rather have this?
Then let the world live in peace!
To our kind viewers and followers who care about truth and about Donbass:
Quemado Institute has noticed peculiar and very distinct patterns of censorship that affect our viewership. Generally, after posting an unusual amount of news or a very important commentary, we find our viewership cuts off suddenly and drastically in certain countries, then gradually picks up again over the next few days. This peculiar pattern has repeated itself a number of times. There is no statistical basis for it. We at Quemado Institute are physicists and engineers. We know what statistical patterns look like.
For example, our alternate platform Novorossiya Daily Sun (which duplicates our News from Novorossiya page as its main post) gets most of its views from Europe. In approximate order of interest, we receive views primarily from Germany, France, Italy, Great Britain, the Netherlands, Finland, Sweden, and somewhat less from other European countries. United States viewership generally lies somewhere in between.
The censorhip pattern we detect shows up as a sharp cut-off in views from Europe, and sometimes also the US, while views from South America, Africa and Asia continue to come in. That is nonsensical.
Similar anomalous patterns occur on the main Quemado Institute platform, and have been seen repeatedly for several months now. Indeed, the pattern has been noted on at least twelve occasions: following the publication of an especially important commentary or news column, our viewership from parts of Europe, and sometimes the US, suddenly drops by a very large percentage, then gradually increases again over the subsequent two or three days. There is no probabilistic explanation for this behavior. How the hackers slow down viewership we do not know, but they do it selectively based on country.
The misinformation campaign by the enemies of Donbass, and indeed the enemies of freedom everywhere, has accelerated in recent weeks to a dizzying pace. Twitter is spammed daily with absurd allegations, while confusion mounts to the point that Angela Merkel and Francois Hollande have gone off the deep end into villainous rhetoric.
We are trying to counter misinformation with truth.
Censorship of our websites is extremely disheartening. We work very hard for a noble cause.
[Editor’s message: To whoever is hacking the Quemado Institute website, we offer the following prayer: In the name of Jesus you are healed and forgiven * You are surrounded by light and by love * You are connected with your Christ self * Go in peace.]